Anat. & Phys.
Muscles & Neuro.
Read the DISCLAIMER
Anatomy & Physiology Review
Exam #2 Spring 97 Semester
Biology 1710.001 & .002
Created and typed up for your reading and studying enjoyment by:
PiNoY Copyright © 1997 -
SoxBox Productions, Inc. -- PiNoY and the "PiNoY" logo are registered trademarks
of SoxBox Productions, Inc.
(who else would be this crazy to type up all these notes and then POST them for
everyone to have?)
Beginning notes and the usual:
Well, were all back for the Spring 97 Semester for more fun BIO!!! (Well
maybe not all of us
) Ill get my usual greets out in a minute after you read
all the standard disclaimer stuff. And by the way, stop spending all your time trying to
figure out the greets youre SUPPOSED to be STUDYING!!!!
Disclaimer: I, PiNoY ,
the author of this document release myself from any liability of stress, trauma, injury
(be it physical OR mental), loss of limbs, or death besides FAILING the test
because of reading this document. To the best of his knowledge, the information contained
in this THING is as accurate as possible. The reader should understand, however, that the
writer, like the reader himself/herself is ALSO human, and is therefore liable to
mistakes. To sum up all that politically correct bullshit, if you fail, you cant
blame me. In fact, if you were reading these BioNotes on the way to the test and you
tripped over the curb (really stupid), then you STILL cant blame me. As a matter of
fact, if you trip on the curb on the way to the test, then a car runs over you and gets
away with one of your arms, and then you BLEED to death, you STILL cant blame
me. But, I doubt thats ever going to happen, so oh well. I least I covered my ass.
Note to the reader: These notes, as weird as it may seem, are NOT a substitute for
going to class or reading the text. Although they are probably cooler than any bio book
that youve ever read, that STILL doesnt mean that you can not go to class and
then read these the day before the test and know everything. THAT WILL GUARANTEE YOUR
I wonder where youve seen something like THAT before
the inside cover of your Frankenstein CLIFF NOTES
P.S. I have taken these notes directly out of the reserve notes and added some stuff
from the lecture. Unlike other people, I have NOT taken the liberty to put stuff in here
from the book. Thats just a waste of time, especially since Dr. Sinclair and Dr.
Donahue both TOLD US that the tests would be coming right out of the LECTURES. So, have
fun. If you dont understand anything (like the jokes about certain things),
dont worry about it. OK
if you dont understand the MATERIAL,
then READ THE BOOK!!! Ohh yeah
be sure to know all the diagrams, too
theyll be out to get ya
Physiology of Digestion
Richard J. Sinclair, Ph.D.
One important Public Service Announcement by Dr. Sinclair:
There is a DISTINCT difference between PHYSIOLOGY and ANATOMY. In definitions:
PHYSIOLOGY is the study of HOW things function, as opposed to..
ANATOMY, which is the study of just the PARTS (like what Dr. Ghosh was basically
A bunch of names, but no use
WHO REALLY CARES???)
Nutrition What REALLY is in food?
Here was Dr. Sinclairs little PIZZA example
From all the stuff that are on
the pizza, you get a bunch of different MACROMOLECULES ("big" molecules), which
in turn are ground up into smaller MICROMOLECULES ( dont tell me that you
didnt know that MICRO means SMALL
) That is the whole goal of DIGESTION: to
take these MACROMOLECULES and turn them into things that we can use.
Heres a list of what stuff goes to what"
Protein è Amino Acids è
Proteins and other Hormones
CHO (Carbohydrates) è Simple Sugars (primarily GLUCOSE) è NRG!
Fat è Lipids è Cell
Membranes (remember all that from Dr. Mariache? Queen of Proteins??? J )
just remember that CHOs that are NOT used up can be turned to fat,
See Page 802 A Diagram of the Digestive System
Chewing (a.k.a. Mastication
funny little word
Digestive enzymes work only on the SURFACES of food particles, especially fruits an
vegetables. (This is why its so important that the digestive (DI) tract has so many
villi, and thus more surface area!!)
so you eat this piece of pizza (hopefully NOT Papa Johns, because Papa
Johns SUCKS!!! Go get some PIZZA HUT or something
). The first part of the digestion process is using your teeth, or CHEWING it.
The teeth up front, called your incisors, can exert up to 55 lbs. of pressure
(ever try biting your hand off? Trust me
you could do it if you tried
The teeth in the BACK are called your molars. (As if you already didnt
its not like youre gonna be a DENTIST, are you???) These can
exert up to 200 lbs. of pressure, and are used to GRIND the food down into little bits and
pieces. (This is the part where you remember your mom telling you to CHEW your food x
amount of times, but you didnt really care
You were eating MACARONI and
The Chewing REFLEX this is technically the "alternation between
relaxing the (lower) jaw and making it stiff again". Its what moves out teeth!
This is something we dont really THINK about. (Well, you could try, but then it
would start getting tough. Go ahead
try THINKING VOLUNTARILY to tell yourself to
chew. Kinda gets tiring
only that, but now you look like a fool in front of all of your friends.)
Salivation (a.k.a. drooling, saliva, etc. and the whole bit
) When you
chew the food (actually, its called a bolus, now that its a sloppy
bunch of wet goo
), you mix it with saliva which is made in four different glands:
Parotid secretes serous, a "watery" secretion that has
an enzyme called "amylase" (an enzyme that breaks down starch, etc.)
Buccal secretes mucin. (meaning "mucous-like). It aids in
lubrication of the "bolus" down the tube and stuff
Submaxillary or Sublingual (means "under tongue"
remember the Spanish word for tongue? Its LENGUA, just as it is for LANGUAGE
a "tongue") secretes a "mixed" secretion (has both of the above
The TOTAL amount of secretion in one day ranges from about 800 to 1500 ml of
saliva a day
that a LOT of "spit". (Just think about making a one gallon
jug of this stuff in one day and carrying it around
The pH range of saliva is anywhere from 6.0 to 7.4
See page 803 Diagram of the esophageal peristalsis
Saliva actually takes an important role in dental hygiene (heres
all that dentist stuff again
it "washes away" bacteria in the mouth (where it goes down to the stomach and
is killed by all that acid down there
has "lysozyme" that DESTROYS bacteria. (Remember what a lysozyme does again?
It BREAKS DOWN the cell wall of certain "stuff")
it also DIGESTS all the little bits of food that might get left behind in the mouth.
This is an added bonus, because not only does it destroy all that nasty rotting food in
your mouth, but it makes SURE that the extra bacteria in your mouth does have any
substrate, or stuff that eat can eat and give you bad breath. Thats why you hear
about the condition called "halitosis", where there isnt enough saliva,
and now your breathe really stinks, ESPECIALLY after eating. Then its REALLY
Im sure you know of SOMEONE who might have this
or have at least
Whats the cause? Its the great autonomic nervous system:
There are two parts to the AUTONOMIC nervous system (dont have to know what that
just know it
) Salivation is controlled by the parasympathetic
nervous system: which means that salivation is stimulated by:
taste (especially sour objects)
round objects (not really round, but SPHERICAL)
The "appetite" area of the brain and irritating foods in the stomach can ALSO
stimulate it. (Hmm
that CATAVINI that I had at lunch wasnt too great
its also stimulated while youre running to the toilet after
THINKING about that Catavini. You get nauseated, and then you go to the bathroom and HURL!
Swallowing (a.k.a. Degulation -- dont ask
its from the reserve
Heres the Voluntary Stage of swallowing The tongue squeezes the
bolus of food upward and backward into the pharynx against the palate. (Just one simple
step this is the only part that you really have to "do"
about swallowing, and its done
) This initiates the INVOLUNTARY stage of
The Pharyngeal or Involuntary Stage:
Food stimulates receptors in the pharynx
The soft palate (above) moves upward and closes off the passages to the nasal cavities
so food doesnt go up there. (Mind you, sometimes this doesnt work to
Im sure ASIAN people can recall AT LEAST once in their life when they had
rice stuck up in their noses because of this. The only way to get it out is to blow your
Vocal chords are pulled upward and back, so the epiglottis covers the larynx so food
cant enter the trachea. (i.e. You dont choke on a piece of steak and
Now theres ANOTHER cause/effect thing: You start to choke when food goes
"down the wrong tube". Or rather, when food blocks the trachea the
passage that leads down into your lungs. Then, you cant breathe. Because this blocks
your air, you cant SPEAK either. So, you know when one of your kid siblings is
faking that he or she is choking when they start to say, "HELP! Im
CHOKING!!!" You couldnt breathe, even if you tried! The Heimlech maneuver
simply applies pressure to the remaining air in your lungs to force out the food
The esophagus (tube where food goes down to the stomach) opens up.
The pharynx contracts, propelling food into the esophagus. This constant,
propulsive movement of the food / bolus / chime by a "wave" of muscles is called
The stomach muscles begin to relax (this is called Receptive Relaxation).
The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes, and the food empties into the stomach.
Note that this should CLOSE when the food is done emptying. If not, then the acid crap
in your stomach can actually come back UP into the esophagus and damages it and the
larynx. (Theyre not protected against the gastric juices (HCl) like the stomach
more on that later.) I think this is the cause of "heartburn" (although
I dont have it
See page 804 Diagram of Secretion in the Stomach
The stomach is a STORAGE AREA for food until it is emptied, little by
little, into the small intestine.
Its also where the bolus is mixed w/ gastric juices for digestion.
The stomach can store about 1.5 quarts of "stuff". (Notice that
its in QUARTS now
not pounds. The stomach is VOLUME dependent
The gastric glands in the stomach secrete two different things:
Parietal cells secrete the acid (HCl)
Chief cells secrete the enzymes (Pepsinogen)
Weak contractions of the stomach mix the food and propel it toward the duodenum
(first stretch of the small intestine). (You can probably hear this movement if you listen
really closely right after a big meal.)
The bolus of food, now mixed with acid, is referred to as acid chyme.
(Thats basically vomit
It really sucks
Hunger pangs are contractions that are probably due to low blood sugar.
Gastric emptying is the process of holding, mixing, and relaxing chyme into the
See Page 805 Diagram of the stomach, liver, and more fun, gooey
How is Gastric Emptying Controlled?
What is it that DECREASES gastric emptying?:
When the small intestine is full, a hormone called enterogastrone is released,
telling the stomach, "STOP IT ALREADY! If you keep sending me more stuff, Im
Unprocessed proteins (ones that dont really get broken down into their
representative amino acids while in the stomach and are greater than 1 mm3 in
size) ALSO slow down the gastric emptying process. (Remember when your mother said to chew
your food 47 times before swallowing? This is "supposedly" how it helps
When the small intestine gets really STRETCHED out (not STRESSED
), this is called
a "duodenal stretch", and tells the stomach, "Hey! STOP! I got
something to work on! STOP IT!!!"
Acidity also plays a role. When the stuff in your duodenum gets really acidic,
its just another sign that things need to get digested, etc. (I guess
I was falling asleep
Fat also slows down the gastric emptying, just because it is SOOOO hard to
What can I do to INCREASE gastric emptying?:
First there was duodenal stretch
now theres gastric stretch. When
theres tons of stuff in the stomach, things have to move along quickly, so more
stuff is emptied in less time into the duodenum
or better yet, INCREASED gastric
The hormone gastrin it is produced when you first start eating and is
used to signal the stomach to get ready.
Fun with GASTRIC SECRETIONS (Arent they YUMMY???)
Gastric glands secrete the following stuff:
Hydrochloric Acid it breaks down connective tissue (like steak
muscles are all connected, so you gotta break it all up)
Gastrin controls the outlet of HCl to bolus to digest down the chyme.
Pepsinogen broken down to pepsin by acid, and is them used to
further digest proteins.
Intrinsic Factor this allows you to absorb vitamin B12,
something that is absolutely essential for the creation of cell membranes.
è The MOST essential use of B12 is for
building the membranes of RED BLOOD CELLS. If these RBCs cant be produced,
then you will get "pernicious anemia", in which the stomach cells are all killed
off because they arent near any blood. Then, you die
Mucus protects the stomach from enzymes and acid. (If you dont have
enough of this, you may just end up getting ulcers, which is essentially your stomach
Lots of fun with ACID SECRETIONS
Gastrin stimulates acid secretion
Neural control stimulates acid secretion also
stretching the stomach, for
Even more fun with PEPSINOGEN SECRETION
It is stimulated by acid in the stomach.
Neural control via the vagal nerves (I have no idea
never talked about it in
Sequence of Events:
Stretch à Gastrin à HCl
Gastrointestinal stretch stomach gets stretched (i.e., you eat, and
Gastrin this hormone produce, which makes gastric emptying go on
HCl acid produced to digest the food in your stomach before it is
(Remember that this gastrin can also be produced by the stimulation of the appetite
area of the brain. Remember that experiment where dogs salivated
at the sound of a bell? Thats a perfect example
Gastrin à HCl acid à
Pepsinogen à Pepsin à Break
down of proteins to Amino Acids
Gastrin produced as a result to stretch, control outlet of acid
HCl acid breaks down the
Pepsinogen to make
Pepsin which is used to
Break down proteins into amino acids - (nuff said
Pathophysiology ("Patho" means bad or being bad, while physiology is
"how things work". Now that totally means "somethings wrong with how
things work". Just take the word "psychopath", for example. Thats
something wrong with your mind
(youre a PSYCHO!))
Gastritis is an inflammation of gastric mucosa. Alcohol and aspirin can
penetrate the mucosal barrier so that your own gastric juices (HCl
hydrochloric acid) can hurt your stomach. You can get some REALLY big ulcers, and hence,
digest your own stomach
(And in the words of Dr. Donahue, "
Peptic ulcers (most commonly found type of ulcer) usually occur in the first few
inches of the duodenum when digestive juices get past the mucosal barrier. This MAY be
caused by Heliobacter pylori (they keep finding this stuff in the ulcer area after
an autopsy). Now youve got HOLES in your stomach.
Fun Fact (well
I dont really think it classifies as fun, but
its a FACT
): If there is blood in your stool (feces), then thats a SURE
sign of ulcers. Blood turns BLACK after being digested. You get the picture
5. The SMALL INTESTINE! (Yippee Fun!)
Remember that the duodenum is the first few inches of the small intestine.
Recall that peristalsis is the propulsive movement from a "wave" of
muscles, from mouth to anus. When stuff gets to the small intestine / duodenum, then a
different movement occurs. This is called segmentation, where a "mixing"
type of movement occurs.
This is controlled by the gastroenteric reflex (when the stomach is stretched,
you get a movement called borborygmi something you can hear. EMTs use
this to find out if victims are still living) Increased motility can be brought
about via the hormones gastrin, insulin, and after eating.
Located parallel to and beneath the stomach.
The pancreas produces pancreatic fluid that has:
enzymes which aids in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fat
bicarbonate fluids (that are alkaline) neutralizes acid (just like how
you pour bicarbonate powder on acid spills in chem lab
not like we ever do
Pancreatic juice is released in response to chyme in the duodenum.
Two hormones aid in the signaling and secretion of the two fluids:
cholecystokinin (CCK) causes the release of enzymes
secretin causes the release of the bicarbonate solution
BOTH of these hormones are produced in the duodenum.
Stores blood in times of excess volume. (EX: in case of injury, blood is let out
so you dont bleed to death
bleed to death AS FAST anyway
Has TONS of blood. So, if someone shoots you with a gun in the liver, "then
Metabolic functions of the liver:
stores glycogen (Glycogen is made when there is an excess of glucose. Insulin is
the primary hormone that allows for this to happen. Thats why if youre
diabetic, you need to take insulin shots
the extra glucose comes out in the urine,
rather than being stored)
Converts carbohydrates and proteins to FAT (if ever so needed
get off your
butt and EXERCISE!!!)
Produces cholesterol. Remember that cholesterol, even though its been
given a bad rap, is IMPRORTANT because:
it provides a basis for bile salts
it is an important component of cell membranes (if you dont have any
of this, you can freeze to death a whole lot faster!)
Secretory functions of the liver:
Bile salts they are like detergents: they emulsify fats. (i.e.
turn them in to tiny droplet size molecules known as micelles)
Bile salts are secreted into the gall bladder.
Either lots of fat or CCK stimulates the contraction of the gall bladder, to secrete
the bile into the duodenum.
Contraction of the gall bladder has also been proven to be stimulated just by sight
(your mouth watering at the sight of steak, etc.)
Enzymes from other places can also be released via this method.
DRUGS (dont use em)
The important point here is that drugs are metabolized here in the liver. They are conjugated
in the liver with the bile from the gall bladder to make them water soluble, so you can
"pee" the drugs out
Absorption in the Small Intestine
Intestinal mucosa (the squishy linings of the inside of the small intestine) is
folded over and over again to increase the surface area by 3 times.
Villi, little hairs on the surface of the intestinal mucosa, increase the
surface area by 10 times.
Microvilli (a.k.a. brush border), even SMALLER hairs on the villi, increase the
surface area by 20 times.
(NOTE: This all comes back to the fact that digestion can only occur when the
SURFACE AREA of the food is in contact with the SURFACE AREA of the intestine, etc. The
key word is SURFACE AREA!)
Another "reason why": The reason why the intestine is so long is to give
it more SURFACE AREA the longer it is, the more chances there are to reabsorb stuff
back into the body, and get the most out of the cavatini that you ate the other day.
The total increase of surface area (when you multiply it all out) comes out to 600
times the original surface area. If you spread that all out, then its about the same
surface area as a tennis court. (Pretty impressive, eh? Dont believe me? Try it out
on your calculator
You dont need derivatives
In the process of digestion, about 7 8 liters of water are reabsorbed
back into the body. Keep in mind that the TOTAL capacity of the small intestine is about
Remember all those things that came out of Dr. Sinclairs pizza example?
Heres how they break down and are taken in:
Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars (usually glucose), and taken in via
Proteins are broken down into peptides or amino acids, and are reabsorbed, also, by
Fatty acids and monoglycerides are broken down into micelles with the help of bile
salts, and then diffuse out through cell membranes. These micelles are then converted into
chylomicrons (which, when covered with proteins, are now water soluble) and return
to circulation via the lymph.
See page807 Diagram of the structure of the small intestine
The upper, beginning (proximal) portion absorbs even more water and (dissolved)
salts from the chyme going through.
The lower, last portion of the large intestine, however, is primarily used for the
storage of fecal matter until defecation occurs.
Movements are very sluggish. (The fluid in that acid chyme is quickly being reabsorbed
back into the body, so the "solid" portion is what is moving through.)
Haustrations are mixing movements that mix around the "mush" in your
large intestine. They usually last anywhere from about 30 to 60 seconds.
The "propulsive" movements (so to speak) are called mass movements
that occur a few times a day, or once a day. (i.e. whenever you go to the bathroom).
Gastric and duodenal reflexes stimulate these mass movements. (If you eat more and you
are already full, youll need to move NOW!)
The rectum is usually empty of feces... (well.. in most cases anyway...)
Mass movement (you know what Im talking about...) forces feces into the rectum...
Then you can "feel it". (Hehehehe...) This stimulates the DESIRE for defecation.
(Well... I really wouldnt call it desire... its more kinda like, you HAVE
When youre REPUBLICA ("Ready to go..."), the rectum contracts, and both
the internal AND the external anal sphincters relax. (Yes... you have two of them...)
Thats what TOILET TRAINING is all about - the relaxation of the anal sphincter is
an INVOLUNTARY reflex that occurs when mass movements begin to occur. Its the
VOLUNTARY part, learning how to control the EXTERNAL anal sphincter, that you learn how to
do early in life. (Well.. at least you BETTER learn!!!)
There arent any villi in the large intestine, by the way... Instead, theres
lots of mucus for... uhh.... err.... lets just say "lubrication". (Is all
of this grossing you out yet?)
Diarrhea refers to the irritation of the large intestine, usually by bacteria.
(Eat any bad food lately? Thats where you get it from... like something doesnt
"agree" with you? Thats all it is... It stimulates the secretion of extra
water and salts to wash the irritant away. (Thats why its really WATERY...)
Feces actually consists of 75% water and 25% solid.
The SOLID portion of feces consists of:
30% dead bacteria
20% inorganic matter (I dunno...)
30% undigested fiber (remember. There is absolutely NOTHING on this earth that is
living that can break apart plant cellulose. Even though plants make it, even PLANTS
cant break it down. THEYRE SO STUPID!!!! They make cellulose when they have
too much starch, etc. to store, and now they cant do squat with it! HA!)
The brown color in feces is due to bilirubin, a pigment derivative of hemoglobin
(dead Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are actually killed off this way, I think...)
The distinctive "odor" of feces comes from bacterial action... (Ughhhh....)
Constipation can be caused via very "psychological" means, especially
during toilet training as a kid. If you start thinking that you need a certain time, and a
certain place, and all that other good stuff just to take a shit, the feces will get held
up inside for a long time. This can make the large intestine continue to reabsorb the
water in the feces until there is virtually none left. This is otherwise known as MEGACOLONthe
consistency of the feces can actually turn as hard as concrete... OUCH!!!! Then you take
chocolate covered EX-LAX, which actually disturbs the lining of the large intestine and
makes it watery, and youre all better, right? Uhhh... I dunno... never happened to
11. Other "
Interesting" (try DISGUSTING) Stuff
Vomiting occurs when the GI tract becomes irritated, over distended, or
overexcitable. (Mustve been the cavatini!!!)
The vomiting center in the brain is stimulated, and you get anti-peristalsis...
(you PUKE!) The stomach is squeezed between the diaphragm and abdominal muscles... (And as
a result, anything inside goes up the esophagus and out into the toilet... hopefully... if
youre that lucky...)
Nausea is the conscious recognition of stimulation of the vomiting center...
like when youve got motion sickness...
Flatus occurs from swallowed air, gases from bacterial action, and gas diffusing
out of the blood. (Really explosive stuff
it has methane, hydrogen and CO2
from bacterial action!!)
Gas in the stomach is nitrogen and oxygen
this results in a belch
Some gas in the small intestine is a result of the neutralization of acid
About 0.6 liters of gas are expelled each and every day! (Did you know that cows belch
out enough gas everyday to power a home for a few days? Definitely a test questions, so
Physiology of the Kidneys
Bio(sucks) 1720 February 17-24, 1997 (Really?)
Richard J. Sinclair, Ph.D., DMan, HeD, DooD
what do the kidneys do?
The major purpose of the kidney is to regulate the volume & composition of
your major bodily fluids (like your blood for example
Welcome to Primordial Soup: See
life evolved and developed in a "high
potassium" environment (remember all that stuff you learned in 9th grade
bio? Heres where its gonna come in handy
). When life finally evolved
(whatever it was
) the earth and land around the primordial soup eroded inward, and
then there was a high amount of sodium surrounding the "life". HENCE, now, a
bunch of K+ ions start inside the cell, and the Na+ stuff is
outside, in the blood. IF this balance is not kept, things will go into reverse, and, in
the words of Dr. Donahue, "
then you die
SO, the next function of the kidneys is to eliminate metabolites and toxic
substances from the body. It filters all of this out of the blood.
Somehow, the kidneys also regulate blood pressure, simply by removing the sodium
ions (Na+) from the blood (now that the sodium is aqueous), thus lowering the
blood pressure!!! (Remember from Dr. Donahue: If blood pressure goes to low, then not
enough blood is getting everywhere, "then you die!". If it gets too high, then
the heart cant handle it anymore, and then it stops (it needs a rest!!!), "then
The primary component of kidneys (the "working" part, anyway) are the nephrons.
These nephrons work to do all the filtering. You start off with 1.25 million nephrons per
kidney. If things go bad (you do drugs a lot, kidney disease), you loose a whole bunch of
these "then you die!" The problem is that you dont KNOW if your
kidneys dying until 60% of the nephrons are gone. (If you REALLY wanna see how it
works, see page 887.)
How do they work?
25% of the cardiac output (stuff coming out of the heart directly this
percentage of blood) is filtered at the glomerular capillaries.
This produces a total of 180 liters of "stuff" per day of filtrate, 99%
of which is actually reabsorbed back into the blood stream. (Note: But usually we only
piss out 1 L of urine a day
know that the excess actually goes BACK into
the blood stream
PLASMA is actually what gets processed in the kidney. Out of a 5 liter sample of
blood, there are 3 liters of plasma. This plasma is reprocessed over and over.
65% of what is left over is filtered in the proximal tubule. Its the
"proximal" tubule because its closer to the heart. It is twisted &
curved, like the small intestine, so there can be good reabsorption (there are lots of
25% of whats left is filtered in the Loop of Henle.
10% of that is filtered in the distal tubule and collecting duct.
1 ml per minute of urine is produced
Whats in blood?
Blood cells, proteins, and other "large things". (Hmmm
Metabolically important substances (like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc. and
other stuff that you get from that same PIZZA
whatever the case
Whats in URINE?
All glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids are reabsorbed in the proximal tubule
none in the urine.
99% of the salts get reabsorbed, which takes water with it via osmosis.
Additional water is reabsorbed in the collecting duct.
Metabolites are not reabsorbed well
Some are secreted. (i.e. penicillin,
hydrogen ions) into tubule, concentrated and excreted.
Concentrated or dilute urine? (Why does it differ?)
When body fluids are concentrated, a hormone from the pituitary gland, called an antidiuretic
hormone, increases reabsorption of water from the collecting duct, which concentrates
Diuretics prevent reabsorption back into the blood, and the salt is excreted,
carrying out water.
Alcohol prevents release of antidiuretic hormone. As a result, you get diluted urine.
Animal Physiology (and the whole bit
Dr. Manus J. Donahue
The CIRCULATORY System
The major FUNCTION of the circulatory system is to transport blood so that
oxygen and glucose & other nutrients to each cell and so that waste products (like CO2)
can be eliminated from the body.
Every cell needs to be no further than 1mm away from blood supply.
It is also used to get waste out. (Like when you breathe out). Stuff like CO2,
ammonia, and other stuff
Arteries no matter what KIND they are, they carry blood AWAY from the heart (be
it oxygenated and deoxygenated blood!) (Remember: artery starts with "A"
A for AWAY!!!
Areterioles Smaller branches of the arteries.
Capillaries absolutely tiny. This is where has exchange from the red blood cells
to the other cells that need it occur. Capillaries can also be thought of as the
connectors between arteries and veins.
Venules Smaller branches of veins.
Veins the big ones. You should know already. Veins carry blood TO the heart.
Circulation there are TWO types:
Systemic all circulation to ALL tissues of the body (except for the
Pulmonary circulation to the lungs. (Dont ask
Blood (isnt it funny of Donahue says this word? Listen to him next
out loud! J )
A VISCOUS fluid composed of:
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
White Blood Cells (WBCs)
The FUNCTION of RBCs:
They carry O2 from the lungs to the tissues.
They carry CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
There are 5 BILLION RBCs in just one cubic centimeter (cc) and you have 5 L of
blood. Therefore, there are over 25,000,000,000,000 (25 trillion) red blood cells in the
Now remember that EACH RBC has 250,000,000 Hb molecules (HEMOGLOBIN molecules), and
that EACH Hb molecule can carry 4 Oxygen (O) molecules
The FUNCTION of WBCs:
The major purpose of white blood cells is to defend against foreign enemies and
Plasma (what fun!)
Plasma fluid contains 7% protein containing albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen
(responsible for clotting the blood
For example, if Dr. Donahue sliced your head off
and you didnt have these proteins, well
"then you die!"
The Circulatory System its a continuous circuit and a given amount of
blood is pumped by the heart. This amount must flow through each subdivision of the
Lungs area where O2 is taken in. Blood pumped to the lungs via
the pulmonary circulation system engages in gas exchanges, taking in O2 while
letting go of CO2 (exhaling).
Pulmonary Vein Vein going TO the heart FROM the lungs with newly
Left Atrium area of the heart where newly oxygenated blood from the lungs
Left Ventricle very muscular part of the heart. Another chamber that sits
next to the left atrium, separated by the Atrioventricular valve (A-V valve for
for obvious reasons
) Because this is the part of the heart that is
pumping the blood to all parts of the body, its gotta be really strong.
carry blood AWAY from the heart
Capillaries gas / stuff exchange occurs between them and the cells. See
above if you didnt already get the idea.
Veins DOUBLE DUHHH
carry blood TO the heart (Remember: For every
artery, there is a complementary vein)
Right atrium area of the heart that the coronary vein empties into.
Right ventricle part of the heart that pumps the blood through the
pulmonary artery to the lungs. Isnt really muscular since its only going a
short way. Separated from the right atrium by another atrioventricular valve.
Atrioventricular (AV Valve) the major purpose of ANY valve of the heart
is to only allow blood flow in ONE direction. Otherwise, deoxygenated blood goes in the
wrong direction, and then "you die". The AV valve is located between the atrium
and the ventricle. (Hence the name ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVE!!!)
Aortic Valve (or Semilunar Valve) valve inside the main arteries
(pulmonary and coronary) that keep blood going in one direction.
REMEMBER: The heart contracts from the bottom up!
Blood Pressure Stuff:
The "normal" blood pressure is 120 over 80
The SYSTOLIC blood pressure is when the blood pressure INSIDE YOUR ARM (in mm Hg) when
the heart is contracting.
The DIASTOLIC blood pressure is when the heart is NO LONGER CONTRACTING (relaxed).
When the blood is released through the semilunar valve, the blood pressure INSIDE the
heart rises from 0 to 120 (which is about what it is inside your arm
there is only a
slight difference) This is on the left side of the heart.
On the RIGHT side, there isnt much change in blood pressure at all
all you need to do is get the blood to the lungs and back.
BE SURE TO STUDY THE GRAPH OUT OF THE NOTES!!!! (When blood pressures rise and
Blood pressure is directly related to actions of the heart and the EKG.
Heres a sequence of actions that causes blood pressure to rise:
The A.V. Valve closes (stopping blood to the ventricle), making the ventricle contract
(drawing blood in), and then the aortic valve opens (blood goes out of the heart from the
ventricles through the arteries). Also, the atrium relaxes. This creates the QRS complex
in the EKG. During this time, pressure in the left ventricle starts to builds up. This is
the first heart sound "lub". This is the SYSTOLE.
Then, the A.V. Valve opens (letting blood from the atrium into the ventricle), and the
aortic valve closes (blood stops coming out of the heart). The left ventricle pressure
drops. Compared to the EKG, it comes between the T and P waves. This part, which is also
the second heart sound, "dub", is called the DIASTOLE.
An EKG is an ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
it looks at the electrical impulses
that pass over your heart.
The Sino-Atrial node, located in the right atrium of the heart, sends an
electrical impulse that starts the heart beating.
The Atrioventricular node receives that electrical impulse and sends an impulse
down towards the bottom of the heart. This starts the heart to contract from the bottom
When using and EKG, the EKG leads are positioned at the four corners of the heart in
order to sufficiently detect the electrical impulses. These impulses are graphed over the
x axis of time, for a "picture" of the heart beats.
The human heart is myogenic
which means that if I ripped out your heart
and put it on the table, it would beat by itself on the table
but of course,
"then you would die
" This has something to do with SODIUM, but Im
not exactly sure what
There are a number of "bad" EKGs that you should be able to spot:
Tachycardia (heart rate of over 100 beats per minute) may mean a couple
of things. Your cells could be needing a lot more O2 and other "good
stuff", so the heart is pumping faster (like if youre running or exercising).
OR, if this keeps up for a long time, it could mean that you need to pump a whole lot more
for such a small amount of blood to get through. Your heart is getting tired and you could
have a heart attack!!! (Or maybe you just saw your "significant other" or
J (The EKG of this is just a bunch of
fast heart beats)
Ventricular Fibrillation a.k.a. uncoordinated contraction of the
ventricles. Everything looks OK at first, but then you see that the ventricles are
contracting by themselves, and not in order. That means that theres DEFINITELY
something wrong. (Go get the doctor
because "youre gonna die
(The EKG of this look just like a bunch of squiggly lines
you can tell)
Heart block (failure of stimulation to ventricles following atrial
contraction). Really noticeable on the EKG because a QRS complex is skipped.
On an EKG, the most common positioning of the EKG leads are at the four corners
of the heart, but there a bunch of different arrangements too that can help you see other
things like irregularities in heart beats (heart murmur), decreased blood supply, and
more. One common example is putting the leads straight across the chest. That will give
you an ABCD wave. (Dont ask
something he said in class
P wave the atrium contracts
QRS complex the ventricle contracts and the atrium relaxes.
T wave the ventricle relaxes.
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: ("remember this stuff because half of you out there are
going to die from it
The measure of systolic and diastolic pressure in the arteries is what is referred to
as BLOOD PRESSURE.
High blood pressure is commonly known as hypertension. It is an abnormally
elevated blood pressure frequently associated with structural and functional abnormalities
of many organs, particularly blood vessels, the heart, the brain, and the kidney. (i.e.
you will DIE!!!)
Normal B.P.s vary, but it is usually 120/80 (120 mm Hg when the heart is
contracting, 80mm when the hear is relaxing)
The causes of high blood pressure include:
the "garden hose" effect "Constriction"
Diastolic B.P. is over 90 (dont ask
Atherosclerotic: Plaques can from ANYWHERE where there is a "wettable"
solution (place where extra cholesterol floating around in the blood stream can stick to
and start to clog. - area of HIGH hydrophobicity) Like I said, this can occur ANYWHERE...
if its at the carotid or jugular, theres loss of blood to the brain and you
die from a stroke. If theres blockage at the kidney, you get renal failure. If
theres blockage in the HEART (coronary vein, etc.), then you get an all out HEART
Shock is defined as the inadequate propulsion of blood into the aorta, and therefore a
high amount of blood is not profusing to capillaries. (i.e. no blood to certain parts of
There are FOUR types of shock:
||Allergic reactions to bee stings and
penicillin (maybe even smelly shoes... like the short chained fatty acids that can
actually cause allergic reactions...)
||Histamine is released into the blood stream,
which causes massive vaso-dilation (vascular system dilates massively)
||Well, then theres no blood in the heart,
and then you DIE! As a result, they pump you with Epinephrine, which does
the reverse and is a vaso-constrictor.
||BIG cut ("... say I lopped off your head
with a knife... then you would die...")
||This means a MAJOR hemorrhage. (so, instead of
all the blood inside the body, its on the OUTSIDE! AHHH!!!!)
||Uhhh... try and put pressure on it so
itll clot... (yeah right...)
||Bacteria eats the blood... (Certain kinds
do... I dunno how...)
||This is called SEPTIC. (Dunno...)
||Get rid of the "toxic" bacteria.
||Not pumping enough blood back into the heart.
||The heart, as a pump, is failing
(digitalization problem... heart is not contracting on time, etc.)
Talkin about the Cap Beds:
Smooth muscle fibers in metaaterioles and precapillary sphincters are
controlled by local humoral environment (i.e. O2, CO2, H+
ions, electrolytes (Na, K, Ca) and Adenosine.
Stuff goes along to the precapillary sphincter, and let by 1 RBC at a time. THAT is a
Twice as much "stuff" goes back from the capillaries to the heart. (This is
because of the "lymphatic system"... its like blood, but it has lymph
instead of RBCs. The lymph system is parallel to the venal system.
Cardiogenic Shock - long standing overwork of the heart muscle or actual loss of
muscle tissue (in the hear.... OUCH!)
1. Myocardial disease - caused by a virus: Like CHICKEN POX - unlike the liver and
muscles, the nervous system and the heart does NOT regenerate. So it gets DEADLY if the
heart is directly attacked, because it will KILL YOU TILL YOU DIE!!!
2. Electrical failure - If the SA node or the AV node doesnt work (like if it
gets misdirected in the wrong directions), then you need something else to "keep the
beat", so to speak. Then, you get a PACEMAKER... but it doesnt have to be in
your heart. You can put a strong one in your arm, and itll make the
"Beats" for ya.
3. Coronary Artery Blockage - nuff said... if you get atherosclerotic plaques
here, you automatically get a heart attack (do not pass go, do not collect $200)
4. Valvular Heart Disease - this happens especially if youre over weight (like
some person / people I know)... you work too hard to do simple tasks and it makes your
valves fail. Remember - if your valves dont keep the same blood in the right
direction, "... then you die!!!"
5. High Blood Pressure - nuff said...
What are the effects of Heart Failure???
1. Fatigue on little exertion (you work a little, and then you die...)
2. Stiffness of the lungs - shortness of breath.
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
Cholesterol is in this little bubble type thing, with a protein on the surface
of the bubble (hence called a SURFACE PROTEIN) This entire thing is called the LDL (low
density lipoprotein) molecule. You get this from the stuff that you eat on a daily basis.
These are really bad... VLDLs (very low density lipoproteins) are even WORSE!!!!
DONT EAT em!!!
HDLs are GOOD!!! (They can "sweep out" these LDLs and
On the cells plasma membrane (made of a phospholipid bilayer), there are LDL
RECEPTOR PROTEINS (these look like wrenches stuck in the thing... :) )
If there arent enough of these, it may be genetically associated, and you might
not be able to handle that much of that cholesterol. That means WATCH YOUR DIET.
If there arent enough to take in the cholesterol (or you have WAY too much
cholesterol), then it stays in the blood and could help aid the build up of an
RABBITS have a lot of these things! (THIS WILL PROBABLY BE ON THE TEST!!!) You
cant kill a rabbit by giving it a bunch of fat to eat...
The LDL molecule binds to the LDL receptor protein and is drawn inside the cell so it
can be used for "stuff..."
This was discovered by a pair of scientists named Goldstein and Brown, professors at
UTHSC-D (University of Texas Heath Science Center at Dallas)
50% of the phospholipid bilayer is made of cholesterol. It is VERY important in
movement of the cell and the flexibility of the cell (accounts for the "fluid mosaic
model" of the cell)
1. If there is a low # of LDL receptors - this is probably genetic and is
2. So, there is a lower amount of cholesterol in cells...
3. Cholesterol synthesis goes UP (HNG-CoA-Reductase... something to do with this...)
4. There are more LDLs in the blood as a result.. ("THEN YOU DIE!!!!")
5. KNOW GOLDSTEIN AND BROWN!!!! I BET YOU $50 million pesos that itll be on the
Even more stuff on RECEPTOR MEDIATED CYTOSIS:
The LDL particle / molecule is made up of:
an apo-b protein
a phospholipid bilayer
cholesterol esters on the inside
* These LDL particles bind to LDL receptors that are only in clathrin coated pits. This
is a big characteristic that restricts the areas where LDLs can bind for endocytosis
into the cell. KNOW HOW THIS WORKS!!!
After being taken out of the "coated vesicle", the cholesterol is used for
stuff, and the receptors are RECYCLED out to the plasma membrane to be reused again.
This is where the idea of down regulation comes into play. Question: Is it
better to let kids eat all of their candy on one night? Or over the course of a month?
The ANSWER is ALL ON ONE NIGHT! Surprising? Not really. The same idea of clathrin
coated pits is the same for glucose. Glucose needs to be endocytosed into the cell because
its too big to pass through the plasma membrane on its own. There are only so many
of these receptor areas where glucose can come in. If theyre all being used at once
because there is so much glucose, then no more glucose can come into the cell, and the
extra stuff is simply excreted out. So, eat as much candy as you want
but no more! J
The Lymphatic System
This system parallels the VEINS and NOT the arteries.
The purpose of the lymphatic system is to take weird waste and process WBC stuff
Lymph Its similar to blood, but contains NO RBC.
The lymph system goes back to veins at the LEFT THORACIC VEIN
Lymph is processed at dropped off at the LYMPH NODES.
Lymph glands tonsils of thymus?
There are tons of diseases associated with the lymphatic system:
One that he talked about is called elephantiasis: it occurs when a microfalarial worm
clogs up the circulating lymph and causes BIG swelling in your lymph nodes
The major lymph nodes are located in the tonsils, groin, under the armpits, and in the
The Skeletal System
Its a common fallacy that the skeletal system moves. Well, IT
its actually the PAIRS OF MUSCLES that are attached to the bones
that move the skeletal system.
It used for protection. à Take the skull for
at first, it comes in three parts and its really soft. Then, the three
bones fuse. Keeps your head intact, and your lungs from being punctured, and more!
Bones are ALIVE
they contain arteries, veins, and nerves. There are three types
of bone cells, depending on the age:
osteoblasts NEW bone cells
osteocytes MATURE bone cells
osteoclasts OLD bone cells
The SKELETON we have ENDOskeletons (our skeletons are INSIDE the body)
like insects with their skeletons OUTSIDE the body (CHITIN!!!!) We have 206 individual
bones (nice number to know
è In just the axial skeleton, there are 80 bones,
the rib cage
(more or less anything going up and down)
è The appendicular skeleton = all the appendages (legs
the pectoral girdle (the shoulder)
the pelvic girdle (the hips)
Remember that you can easily tell the difference between a man and a woman by paying
attention to the hips. A womans pelvic girdle is a lot bigger to allow for space of
the birth canal.
Cartilage (a lot more different than bone)
No artery, veins, or nerves (IT IS NOT ALIVE!!!)
The immature version of cartilage is called CHONDROOCYTES
Sharks have NO BONES (thats why, "when they die"
KNOW THE BONES!!! IF YOU DONT YOU WIL FAIL!!! IM TIRED!!! GO TO SLEEP!!!