Am. H. 2610 Test 2
Am. H. 2610 Test 3
Read the DISCLAIMER
So you History Notes:
(Here we go!)
A long narrative on HISTORY:
What does History focus on?
History is the total sum of the activites of MAN (not anything else
but of MAN
Its been agreed upon that the Universe is about 20 Billion years old
The Earths probably been around for 4 Billion years
Mankind seems to have been around for at least 4 Million years (This is when history
thats a LONG time!)
Demography is the study of population (i.e. the Census Bureau is comprised of a bunch
Historical Demography, therefore, has TONS of applications. It can give us a look into
what has happened in the past and can help predict what will occur in the future.
6000 B.C. (Pre-Egypt) About 5 million people exist on the whole planet.
(This is about 1/3 of what Texas is today
this isnt much) At that point in
time, its probably that man has spread throughout all of the earth to all the parts
where they are now
its just that the population density is pretty thin.
The Agrarian Revolution occurs around 6,000 B.C. , taking root (no pun intended) in the
fertile areas of the world, especially Mesopotamia (the Fertile Crescent).
SO, rather than hunting and gathering, you can have food wherever YOU are. All you need
is a little bit of water (irrigation). You have a RELIABLE food supply.
Its important to notice that when the food supply increases, the population will
ALSO increase to "eat up" the surplus food.
1650 A.D. a BIG jump. American History (as we know it) begins to develop.
There are now 500 million people on the earth. (So, over the course of 7000 years, there
are now 100x more people
you math people can calculate the derivative of this
For example, in France, there is anywhere from 12-15 million people. In 1485 (Henry
VII, the Tudor Dynasty), the English population includes about 3 million people. By 1603,
(the death of Elizabeth I) there are about 4 mil people.
Because of this increase of people, the age of IMPERIALISM begins. This is the
"force" behind the move.
Everyone wants to get out of the country because life is starting to suck in England!
The three purposes of EMPIRES (as in Imperial Empires):
Raw Materials to feed the economy: wood to make paper, berries to make jam, shit
to make shit
New Markets again, for the economy: The British wanted to trade with the
because the Chinese had gunpowder, silk, spices, tea, and most importantly,
An outlet for surplus population imperialistic empires can take care of their
overcrowding problem by shoving everyone else overseas
1850 A.D. 1 Billion people in inhibit the Earth. (check this: from 1650 A.D.
in 200 years, there are twice as many people
derivative going higher?) The Industrial Revolution has set on!
improved machinery, etc., including FOOD PRODUCTION (gee
does that mean?)
irrigation systems improve (uhh
better types of seeds (uhh
more, BETTER food?)
less people needed to produce the same amount of food, so these people can not be
farmers and go do other stuff.
It is also speculated that the climate begins to warm during this period
You see from about 900 to 1400 A.D., it started to begin to get just a tad bit
not sever weather or anything, just a tad bit colder.
Then, from 1400 1850 A.D., a "little ice age" began, and weather was
lots of people died
. This also affected any ships trying to make
journeys across the Atlantic, because its REALLY COLD THERE!
Anyway, as an effect of this Industrial Revolution:
there were TONS more food (Surprise!)
the "little ice age lifts", so growing seasons get longer
Lots of technology being made to make EVEN MORE FOOD!!!!
(Do you understand the main force behind the growing population? It was MORE FOOD!)
1930 A.D. World Population reaches 2 billion (during the periods of Stallin,
the Nazis, the Depression, and President Hoover)
1974 A.D. World Population increases to 4 billion (note: this is twice as
many people in just 44 years
calculate the derivative now!) Cant calculate the
slope? Its an alarming increase of about 70 million people annually. (And
this DERIVITVE is ALSO increasing!!!) At this rate, the population would double every 37
So this means:
In 2011 A.D. the population could hit 8 billion
And in 2048 A.D. we would have at least 16 billion people to deal with
(It just keeps getting bigger!!!)
BY THE YEAR 2900 A.D. there will be 60 Million BILLION people on the planet
There will be 100 people per LIVABLE SQUARE FOOT OF EARTH
So, Vice President Gore went to Egypt with a whole bunch of other government leaders to
try and figure out what they could do about this problem, and debate whether or not the
earth would be able to handle it at all. Unfortunately, it went nowhere
opposition behind it was the Muslims: they saw it as a way to keep their population down.
They were "offended".
So, we import resources because all of the people here in the U.S. use up too much NRG.
à Unchecked population growth can have SERIOUS
Just think about there are 2 new people on this planet EVERY
SECOND! From a certain perspective, the people can all "share" the resources
that they have, or they can find a way to make more resources to have the same amount that
we are all having now.
Throughout History, its been the GOVERNMENTS JOB to control population (For
example, Social Security?)
Are there enough resources? Technology has run out. Will man be smart enough to stop
his own onslaught of the planet? (Remember the example Dr. Bowman gave us about killing
off all of the left handers in the world? Is that really going to work?) The world creates
more problems than can be solved in time!
Non-Indian, Pre-Columbian contact with America (the "New World")
There were actually TONS of people reaching America before Columbus did
textbooks only talk briefly about it.
600 B.C. The Phoenicians hit South America (the were people from the
Mediterranean area that were big on sailing and trading) They were probably trying
to circumnavigate Africa to get around to China or something when they were blown off
course. In 1872, a large stone tablet was found in Brazil which said, "To whom it may
concern: We, the Phoenician type dudes, landed on this here land
We dont know
where the fuck we are, but well be going along now
was lots of controversy over this stone, especially as to whether or not it was fake. The
original owner of the stone made a couple tracings of the stone
and then the stone
was lost. Jules Piccus accidentally bought a tracing of the stone at an auction, and a
dude named Cyrus Gordon helped him out and looked at it. The suspected that the stone was
450 A.D. Huui Shan (not a type of Chinese food) was a dude from
Afghanistan. He turned into a Buddhist monk and came to China to seek "the
enlightened one" (or something like that
he just wanted to be "one with
himself," I guess
) So, he left China in 458 to try and find the magical
land of Fusang (Japan?). He then returned in 499 to report the lands
he had seen to Chinas current emporer, Wu Ti (so, hes had a voyage thats
lasted about 41 years!!!). Huui Shan was thinking that he had really reached
But a dude in the 1880s named H.H. Bancroft said, "uhhh
I dont think so!" He theorized that Huui Shan and his crew could have
hit North America. Edward Vining disagreed with this, however. (Whatever
) One of
them (dont know which one) wrote a book called Inglorious Columbus. In Huui
Shans journals, the land was described as having many giant redwood trees and lots
of moving ground (earthquakes?). Could Huui Shan and his dudes have crossed the Bering
Strait and sailed down the coast to California? Two pieces of evidence support this: 1.
Some recent people found Chinese artifacts while digging out ground for a highway in
California, and 2. Indians in the area recall a time when there were "strangers"
who came among them.
700 A.D. the NORSEMEN (people from Denmark, Norway, and
not exactly VIKINGS
because Vikings were Outlaws
not all Norsemen
were Vikings, but all Vikings were Norsemen) By this time, overpopulation was becoming a
problem and people needed to move. The Vikings were tough sailors and warriors, and they
loved to go raid people who were less fortunate than themselves. After a while, people
could take it anymore, so they paid money to bribe the Vikings not to hurt them
became an almost yearly "tax", which turned into what is known as the "Danegeld"
Anyway, thats where the word Berzerk came from
"BERZERK" was their
battle cry, and they were ferocious, tenacious (SAT WORD!) warriors that just
couldnt be controlled. So if youve gone "berserk", then you
cant be controlled.
The Vikings had 4 major navigational tools, and they all had to do with the sky:
the North Star
and RAVENS (after being let out of the cage, they would fly high and try to find
. If they did, theyd go after it immediately, and they Vikings would just
follow the bird.)
795 A.D. the Vikings find Iceland
870 A.D. they begin to settle Iceland
930 A.D. Icelands population at 30,000 people
970 A.D. first contact with Greenland (what they called Thule, in 978
981 A.D. A dude named Eric the Red from Norway came to Iceland to live.
He was then sent to a 3 year exile in Greenland (he was being a Berserk at home
985 A.D. He said, "Hey that wasnt so bad
we go back and settle with 3,000 people?" So, he did!
986 A.D. Bjarni Herjulfson was a dude from Europe who came to Iceland to
see his family
but everyone on Iceland said, "Hey
they moved with Eric
the Red to Thule!" So, he went over there. BUT, he got lost, blown off course, and
actually made visual contact with America. He said, "Damn! Thats not it!",
so he started this weird zigzag pattern off the coast of America until he hit Thule and
1000 A.D. Lief Ericson (son of Eric the Red) heard about his journey to
this unknown land (America). He set out on an expedition to go see what he could conquer
in America. Too bad NO ONE WAS THERE!!! He said, "This place sucks!" (Well,
actually, there were some people called the SKRAELINGS, but that didnt do
) There was lots of timber and caribou there though, so the trip wasnt
a total waste, I guess
1004 A.D. Thorvald Ericson (you guessed it, Liefs bro!) decided to
try and follow his brothers route. Unfortunately, Thorvald got killed while he was
in a battle over there, and his body was left to rot. Soon after, Thorvalds (Thor
for short J ) wife was converted to Christianity, so she
wanted his body so they could bury it.
1008 A.D. ANOTHER brother, Thorstein, was sent to find the body, but he
1010 A.D. A dude named Thorfinn Karlscvni wanted the "goods"
(the resources in America I guess), but he couldnt find America anymore
Someone named J.R. Enterline theorized that the Vikings took control of the area for
about 300 years.
1390 A.D. its getting MUCH colder (remember the "little ice
age"?) Anyway, by this time, Eskimos from N. America have made it to Greenland and
saw the Vikings having lots of internal conflicts
After a while, the Viking
Settlements were found abandoned
they probably went back to Iceland.
Leo Weiner theorized that Africans probably landed in Brazil. He was working in a
Spanish Archive when he found manuscripts and reports from Missionaries reporting to the
crown that the Indians were spotting "black" people BEFORE the onslaught of
1450 A.D. Fishermen probably hit N. America Had English fishermen
followed the migrating schools of fish over to Newfoundland?
Now to PORTUGAL:
Prince Henry the Navigator (1391-1460)- He started a university at the Strait of
Gibraltar. He funded annual trips down the coast of Europe in an attempt to find a route
to China through the southern end of Africa. Each expedition would use stones as markers
to mark their progress around the coast of Africa. Little by little, each expedition would
go farther down. Using these points, they also charted the western coast of Africa.
1488 Bartholemeu Diaz the first guy to sail around the
"tip" of Africa. After that, Vasco de Gama followed this route farther around
the "Cape of Good Hope" & went right around to Asia.
Andre Biancho and Italian mapmaker, asked by the King of Portugal to draw a map
of the world as he knew it. Europe was drawn pretty accurately. There was a small island
called "Authentic Island" in Latin, however
With 12-14% allowance for
size, it kinda looked like Brazil. Columbus heard about it and thought it was Asia. He was
convinced that he would eventually find a westward route to Asia.
Columbus was the right man who was at the right place at the right time
Lecture 3: Who was Columbus?
Quite possibly the most famous figure in the western world
(And quite possibly
the worlds most perfect nutcake?) Born in 1451, Died in 1506. Born in Geneva (Italy)
as Cristofo Colombo (which translates over, to Christopher Columbus, I guess
family consisted of a long line of wool weavers (artisans) and they were about middle
class. Cristofo was well educated, fluent in 4 languages, math, geography, and astronomy.
He was pretty tight with his family.
1470 he decided to become a seaman (no
dont think that
He signed on with a dude named Rene Anjou and his ships. He was 3rd mate
for about 5-6 years. He thought it was awesome
just doing simple trading, etc. and
he learned the entire Mediterranean.
1476 In one trip to England, the French attacked Anjou and his ships (with
Columbus on board) and they ended up in Portugal. Columbus lived in Lisbon to help his
brother sell maps, but he thought it sucked
he didnt want to SELL the
he wanted to be the guy people talked to in order to MAKE maps
wanted to EXPLORE.
1477-1484 Went everywhere with his new Portuguese navigators license
that he had just earned (now that he sold maps, etc.) He decided that he wanted to try and
go WEST to China (Actually, in his language, Cipangu = Japan, and Cathay = China).
Columbus was really religious (he mightve been a saint because he said that one of
the main reasons he wanted to get to China was to make them all Catholic). He also wanted
to have a "Crusade"
go figure, though
Influences on Columbus:
Pierre dAilly, Imago Mundo (Views of the World) 1410
said that "the oceans really arent as big as anyone else thinks
theyre pretty SMALL!" From this, Columbus got to thinking that theres
actually more land than water. Columbus guess was that 1 degree (360 degrees on the
globe) is equal to 56.6 = circumference of the earth is 19,000 miles. The ACTUAL retail
price, however, is 1 degree = 69.0 = circumference of the earth is 25,000 miles.
Marco Polo, Description of the World Italy to China and Back!
1484 Columbus tried to sell his expedition idea to the Portuguese
Kings advisors. They turned him down because:
Were almost around Africa anyway! Why should we give YOU money? (Remember Prince
Henry the navigators school? Checkout the timeline and match it up
Hes a FOREIGNER! (Hes from Italy
I know he means well, but I
dont like his accent
6-8 weeks without sight of land
can you people really HANDLE that?
Thats longer than anyone else has ever tried before
1485 More determined than ever, he went to Spain to try and sell it to them.
Queen Isabella said, "No thanks
but nice try
stick around will
ya?" So they gave him money to just sit around on his ass and think
Besides, Spain was at war with the Moors (Muslims)
1488 Goes back to Portugal and hopes to sell them the idea
time, however, Bartholemeu Diaz has already made it around Africa, so they say, "NO
1492 Spain takes over Granada, the last Muslim strongpoint. So, they say,
"Now that weve got them out of the way, Christopher, well give you just a
tad bit of money
youve got to go find the rest, OK?" Enthused more than
ever, he does it.
He was granted to titles of Admiral of the Seas and Viceroy. (The viceroy part is
important because it gives him the power to reign as he sees fit for anything not already
under a Christian prince. He could even get all the money from taxes, etc.!)
August 3, 1942 Columbus sets sail for ASIA?! (From the Canary Islands)
7 weeks later
Columbus finally makes landfall in the Bahamas (San Salvador Watlings Island) He
was greeted well by the Arawak Indians, and Columbus was disappointed cause he didnt
see gold and silver everywhere
but he decided to call them Indians anyway
then sailed south the Cuba, then Haiti / The Dominican Republic (Santo Domingo). Then,
after getting shipwrecked, he decided to found "La Navidad" on Christmas
March 15, 1493 "I was on the edge of Asia, Isabella
So, they give it to him w/ full force. He sets off on a 2nd expedition with
17 ships and 12,000 people. Finding money now was not a problem at all, because everyone
wanted in on this new "westward route". When he came back, however, he found
that La Navidad was annihilated. He went to the south side and founded Santo Domingo and
sent out small voyages to try and find "mainland" Asia.
1496 Returns to Spain and there was trouble. The crown starts to rethink,
hes found a LOT of shit so far
maybe we gave him too much
è Sets out for a THIRD voyage
he goes too far
south, however, and hits South America and possibly the Amazon river. Comes back up to
Santo Domingo. Theres a civil war going on and everythings amuch because they
were abusing the Indians. In the mean time, the Crown had sent Francisco Bobadilla, a
Spaniard, to survey how the colonies were doing
after finding out that they sucked,
he arrested Columbus and his brothers (who were helping to rule the colony) and sent them
back and stripped Columbus of his title. Columbus got mad at the crown because Francisco
had treated him badly
The crown said that they were sorry, but they wouldnt
give his titles back. By now, he was in serious trouble.
1502 The fourth expedition. Columbus was told to STAY AWAY FROM SANTO
DOMINGO, so he did. He hit at Honduras and went down to Panama.
1504 Back in Spain. After loosing all of his credibility, he can no longer
get funding for another voyage. Not only that, but Isabella dies.
May 20, 1506 Died in Valladolid : By now, there is TONS of traffic between
Spain and the "New World." Columbus was the man who helped open that door, but
too bad hell never REALLY be able to see whats on the other side. In his
honor, however, they decided to build him a shrine and rebury him in Santo Domingo. Then,
in 1795, they decided that they should move him to Havana Cuba.
1890 the Spanish American war brought him back to Spain (Spanish
Nationalism), but they couldnt figure out whether or not they got the right bones.
Go figure: A dude named Amerigo Vespucci said that he also made 4 trips. He wrote to
Martin Waldseemuller, a cosmographer (map maker) about it all and he said, "Whatever,
Then in 1507, when he finally drew a map with what was known as "Terra
Incognita", he named them North and South America, after the guy that HE first knew
as going to the New World.
A great book: The Columbian Exchange by A.W. Crosby is NOT about cocaine
smuggling. Rather, its about Spains claim to the New World and how it affected
BOTH parties. For one, diseases like Small Pox and syphilis were carried to kill all the
Indians. L In exchange, the Europeans got corn (maize,
it grew anywhere and it was great!) and potatoes (which somehow became the
staple of the Irish
go figure, eh?) Seems like a fair trade, doesnt it?
Indians get killed while the Europeans get more food to increase their already huge
population? Uh-huh Uh-huh Uh-Huh
(da da da
Lecture #4: The Indians
Its been theorized that in 1492, the Native American population could have been
bigger than Europe
4500 B.C. Man appears in N. America. There are 6 major migrations into N.
America (ancestors of the "natives") & many languages signify that there
were long periods of isolation. (Almost 100% pure A & B type blood has been found
among certain Indian tribes). After some time, tribes simply could not communicate with
each other. When Europe came, however, the tribes were forced to come together to fight
against a common enemy.
è It was theorized that there were around 1,000,880
people when Columbus arrived.
1960 When the Indian population was counted there were only 523,591 of them.
This brought a up a huge debate on whether or not the 1 million people estimate could be
what could have possibly gone wrong? In any case, this is the ONLY population
in history that contracts rather than expands during the 1500s. The cause is
probably disease, NOT mass genocide by the Europeans.
The Four Major Indian Nations:
grouped due to linguistics
lived in the areas of Canada, New England, and the Great Lakes.
They are the 2nd most numerous in N. America
another linguistic group
lived in the Finger Lakes area of New York
comprised of 5 Indian nations to form the Iroquian Confederacy:
3rd largest group in North America
(The Tuscarora are added in 1750)
the name Iroquian is Algonquin for "rattlesnake". (Now you know what they
thought of the Iroquian!)
Organized very well for politics, not really for war. In order to protect their
"business", they sent out a war party to destroy everyone who tried to kill
another linguistic group
lived in a benign climate with rich soil everywhere (in the south central part of the
continent) ; as a result, had more farms for more food.
Because of this "food" advantage, they were THE largest group in the U.S.
TONS of TONS of nations
not much here
they just lived on the Mississippi and were fur trappers
What do you ENGLISH people want???
Show me the MONEY! wealth, increased food supply. They also wanted to
find the N.W. passage through North America, in hopes of getting to Asia via a westward
The Unification of England In the 1600, the English thought they were all
that and a bag of chips. I mean, everybody else was thinking that too
this surge of
nationalism pushed England forward to go for everything (including creating an empire).
Anglos saw it as their job to carry the "Anglo-Saxon way" forward to all parts
of the world.
Overpopulation the population was growing fast. As a result, there were
often food shortages, unemployment, and social disorder. They REALLY needed WOOD (for
"stuff" and fuel). They thought about using N. America as a huge resource pot.
The Commercial Revolution in Europe people just wanted to TRADE and MAKE
MONEY! Empires offered a way to sell surplus commodities to people who really needed them.
Rivalry w/ Spain they had to show that they were better, in both religion
(Catholicism vs. Protestantism) and for the sake of Nationalism. Whoever had the most
colonies was awesome, and the other person was just a dork.
Adventure Hey, you could get sick, poisoned, bitten by a rattlesnake or
woo hoo for adventure!!!
The English set foot on American Soil
It all begins with a dude named Giovanni Caboto. He was an Italian who was born
just 4 years after Columbus was (so they grew up in the same era). Caboto grew up in
Venice and followed Columbus work carefully.
1490 Caboto sets up residency in Bristol, England. Because hes living
in England, hes got to have an English name, so he is magically transformed into John
Cabot. His goal was to go to Cathay (China) and trade and get rich, so he decided to
work as a seaman to get some contacts so he could try and sell his idea.
1497 He finally convinces Henry VII that they should let him go find the NW
passage. (Just for the money
no crusading or anything like Columbus did). So, when
he sets sail, he makes landfall on Cape Brenton Island. This was Englands first
territorial claim to the New World. Then, he just scanned the coast and, after staking is
claim, just went back home.
1498 Went out on another expedition, but he never returned
è At that point Henry VII had BIGGER problems to worry
about, like the Reformation and the focus on Internal Problems. He didnt care much
about what had happened.
1553 Hugh Willoughby and John Chancellor sell the King on the idea of
finding a NorthEAST passage. Unfortuantely, it was kinda cold and H.W. died on the
way. So, Chancellor landed ASAP and found himself at Muscovy (Russia). He talked to them
when he got there and opened up trade between Muscovy and England. From this emerged the
Muscovy (Joint-Stock) Company, and it made Chancellor REALLY wealthy
(They had a
bunch of Raccon hats or something
During this time, Englands Seadogz were ruling the seas, attacking Spanish
PLATE FLEETS (Spanish ships just sitting carrying gold and silver). Francis Drake
was the most infamous of them all, raiding tons of ships that were posted around the
northeastern coast of South America. After he raided all the ships, he went down the coast
of S. America and came back up the other side. The Spanish decided to wait him out,
because hed have to come back that way in order to get back home. Instead, Drake
decided to keep going west, and became the first to hit San Francisco harbor. He finally
reached England the other way around and became the 2nd person to ever
circumnavigate the globe.
The story of the Richard Hakluyts (There was an elder and younger, and they were
Richard the Elder studied law in the 1560s. As a hobby, he began to gather all
the information on world colonization efforts around the world. (Because at this time, no
other country had any idea what anyone else was claiming)
Eventually, however, he
1582 - Richard the Younger decided to take over for him. He was a clergyman and
scholar and made his cousins information available to the public in a book called Notes.
really great title there, eh?) England was barely listed anywhere, however.
This was a wakeup call to them that they were falling behind. In short, the Richard
Hakluyts were responsible for making the New World attractive to colonization
it was an area that wasnt totally taken yet, and the English still had
a fighting chance at it. He also published Divers Voyages, a book about what
voyages were going on from 1492 (Columbus) to 1582 (the present). In 1583, he
published A Discourse on Western Planting. Although it was meant to be a handy
gardening reference book, Queen Elizabeth took it as a signal that the English
shouldnt just sit on their asses but DO SOMETHING! (Silly Queen!)
1578 A dude named Humphrey Gilbert reads Discourse (as soon as it
gets published) and he is motivated. His goal was to build a central HQ in America
FORTIFIED area from which England could spawn their colonies
He got a PATENT (approval)
from the Crown to try and do this in 1583. After he left in, he made landfall at
Newfoundland. After hitting, he got caught in a storm and his ship alone (with him on it!)
1584 The charter is transferred over to his half brother, Walter Raleigh.
Came out with Phil Anradas and Arthur Barlowe and decided to go for Roanoke Island. They
left and made landfall there in 1585.
1585 They say, "Hey
there are nice Indians here, the
island is well harbored, and the water table is pretty high (we can just dig into the
ground to get fresh water
GREAT!" So they decided to try and setup the
first Roanoke Colony here. This was the first effort to permanently colonize the New World
for the English. They thought, "Hey
its kinda warm and tropically
but I guess well get used to it
" But, they werent
used to the area at all
and they ended up learning everything the hard way
with LOTS of people dying
L The Manteo and Wanchese
Indians lived around here.
They made lots of MISTAKES by setting up here:
Bad Location little did they know that the island, so far away from the
mainland, was vulnerable to severe weather (hurricanes?). It was also had a low elevation,
was malarial, and very swampy.
Friends as Colonists I guess you cant blame him for this
was a "gentleman"
(i.e. he was UNEMPLOYED)
and he didnt know
any better about what to do
by getting his friends to be colonists, he was under
particular pressure. But, what didnt help, was the fact that all his friends were
morons too! (when it came to building a colony). GET CRAFTSMEN TO COLONIZE YOU MORON!
The expedition was lead by Ralph Lane a bad thing, however, was that he tried to
make a serious effort to convert the Indians
and so, several brawls turned into
armed clashes, which turned to REALLY bad relations
the colony turned into an armed military camp because the Indian were constantly trying to
kick their asses off the island. After a while, they are desperate
Good old SIR Francis Drake (now knighted for having raided tons of Spanish
ships) checks up on the colony after another successful raid. While hes there, a
huge storm destroys just about everything, so they all decided to get a ride home with
(Thanks dude!) As a result, in 1587, the 1st Roanoke Colony
In the Spring of 1587, Walter Raleigh tries to think of another plan and
corrects his two big mistakes:
Simon Ferdinando and John White were put in charge of the expedition.
Ferdinando said, "Why dont we give Roanoke another try instead of going to the
inside of the Chesapeake Bay? I dont give a shit about what Raleigh thinks
think I can make it work!"
so White says, "OK dude
(Boy did THEY wear big Ls on their foreheads! J )
John Whites daughter was among the colonists, and she was the first to bear a
child IN the New World. She was called Virginia, and so, the entire area began to be known
After its all more or less setup, White goes back to England because hes
got "chores" to do
By that time, its 1588 and news that the Spanish are saving up an Armada
to destroy the English gets around. All ships are immediately enlisted into the Royal
Navy. So White has to sit around cause he doesnt have a g-ride back to Roanoke.
1589 everythings OK and the English wards off the Spanish Armada
(boy do they suck
J ) White gets on a ship, but the
ship decides to go to the Caribbean to hit Spanish Plate ships that were extremely
vulnerable (since the Spanish Armada was already gone). As a result, White just got a trip
to nowhere, and he returns to England.
1590 Finally he gets back. But no one is there. 100+ people are missing,
and Roanoke has been abandoned. On one of the gates there is the following message
(signaling that they had fled):
On yet another door, there is the following:
Totally befuddled and thoroughly bemused, they try and find the colonists on a nearby
è NOBODY KNOWS WHAT HAPPENED
Wiped away in a hurricane.
The Spanish picked them off.
Indians chopped them up into bits and used them as fertilizer.
Or any combination of the three for that matter!
1590 Everything is LOST
White goes back to tell Raleigh
tells him that he is a MORON!!!!! They come back later and fire signal guns all around the
area every 3 hours, but no one is there to answer. As a result, the 2nd Roanoke
colony is lost. By this time, the colonization effort will temporarily stop because Queen
Elizabeth I dies (And the Tudor dynasty is gone)
1603 James VI of Scotland is invited to take the throne, and he emerges as
1606 James I owes a lot of favors to all the people who backed him. A lot of
them wanted grants to colonies in the New World, so the Virginia Company is formed.
Everything between 34 degrees N and 45 degrees N, coast-to-coast, was claimed. This is
roughly everything between Charleston and Maine. (Hey
they didnt know it would
be that big
è The Virigina Company is split into two parts: the Plymouth
Company and the London Company. The Virgina Company splits the land so there is
a 100 mile buffer zone between the claims of the Plymouth and London Companies. Plymouth
gets the upper half (41 45 degrees N) and London gets the lower half (34 38
degrees N). They are hoping to find THE passage in the Chesapeke Bay area (the buffer
the reason for putting the bay in the buffer zone is that if it IS found, then
they want to make sure that everyone will be able to use it.
The Plymouth Company:
Theyre the first to move out on the Kennebee River
Led by Gilberts Son, Raleigh Gilbert, and George Poppin (?)
Goal is to build a fortified outpost on their side (gee
doesnt THAT sound
Unfortunately, its not very well organized at all
Its COLD!!! (They couldnt survive the harsh northern climate that they
They setup in a place that wasnt easy to get in/out of (lots of rocks and stuff
not natural harbor that was easy
Tides always hurt them
or something like that
kept them inside
The settled in Abonaki Indian Territory they are BAD INDIANS who wanted them all
è As a result, the colony is withdrawn after 15
The London Company:
- The London group settles on the Chesapeake Bay 2 weeks after the Plymouth group sets
foot (?) They hit land at "Point Comfort" (called it this because it was the
first time anyone had made a Winter Crossing, and it was SO COLD!!! 8 or 9 people
) They were under the command of Christopher Newport.
Advantages over the Plymouth Company:
much more organized, financed, and led
more benign climate (not a hostile winter)
more fertile soil (always a plus!)
hospitable Indians: the Algonquins è the Powhatan
Confederacy. (14-18 tribes now), led by chief Powhatan
1609 - They immediately established an alliance with the new white man because
they wanted weapons
this reciprocal arrangement was good for a while
(It seemed to the English that they were getting a hell of a deal
common place items like knifes and guns, stuff commonplace in England, with exotic furs,
etc. They thought they were getting a hell of deal and ripping off the Indians
the Indians thought the same of the English too! They said, "Gee
all they want
are a bunch of animal skins
and there are plenty
and we get GUNS!!!
so, it was good
1612 life at the colony is really tough now
but John Rolfe
makes a startling discover and produces the first successful tobacco crop. At first, it
was thought to be a cure for certain diseases, but then people started smoking it and
called the upper class called it a "jovial weed"
a social thing. So, it
started to become on demand. Also Powhatan dies, destroying the alliance that the Indians
had with the white men
1619 By this time, there are only 1650 people left alive, even though over
100,000 people have been pampered in
è John Rolfe marries Pochahontas, the favorite daughter
of Powhatan (her name for close friends was Matoaka.) Married in 1614. This once
again allied the English and the Indians. She was baptized and converted to Christianity
and they had a son named Thomas
1616 Rolfe wanted to go home for a bit and he took along his wife and
everyone thought she was cool and treated her like Royalty
The king says,
"shes fine, but tell everyone else not to do this
youre a common
dude and shes a fine princess
dont screw up anymore
Rolfe says, "Cool it man
its all good
so theyre ready to go home and they meet in the departing city of
Graveson. Its here, however, when Pochahontas contacts pneumonia and dies.
Shes also buried there. Thomas was left in England to study for 13 years.
1618 Now that the girl is dead, its a whole new ball game.
Powhatans older brother, Opechancanough takes over and goes to Rolfe and says,
"Were sorry dude
she meant as much to us as she meant to you
know how you feel
just be assured that nothings gonna change
says, "Thanks, dude
youre the man
do you want a strawberry
shortcake?" O-man says, "Nahhh
brothers say, "Dude, did you really mean all that?" and O-Man says, "HELL
NO!!!!". He takes the next 3 years to build up and kill them all
In the mean time, its 1619. The Virginia Company is doing well (the London
part, at least)
it wants to do more stuff, though
There should be representatives to resolve issues on the spot, rather than
waiting for a response from England. So, the House of Burgesses is formed
This is the first time that a self-governing colony is put into motion!)
Private ownership of land is allowed Every freeman gets 100 acres of
land. That is the "first division". Then, you also get 100 acres of land on the
thats the "second division". All you have to do is over
here to England
it works to bring in tons of people
all they have to do is
show up and pay a small fee
Importation of Women not as eternal love slaves, but as WIVES
mean, there were NO women there, so it mustve gotten pretty boring
were imported in. You could pick a wife for the price of 100 lbs of tobacco (the fee for
getting them over here
Also in 1619 was the introduction of African American Slaves into the colony
this marks the first time that its been done
they were taken over as
1622 O-Man launches his attack (on Good Friday
just coincidence, but
it caught them off guard) At this point, O-Man is 80 yrs. old! The English won,
J He killed ¼ of the total population,
and he was forced to make peace
1644 tries to kill them all again, but he fails (now 102 years old!!!)
1623 the colony is "audited", and it is decided that they have
been messing up the book keeping
1624 Virigina is taken and made a Royal Colony. At this point, the English
government ratifies the "Headright system", which says that any freeman can get
tons of land just for coming
This places the English through the door, and they are
here to stay!
Who is this dude anyway?
The Pilgrims Have Thanksgiving
The Plymouth Settlement the 1st in New England
Separatists (aka the Pilgrims). They left due to persecution they were opposed to
certain practices of the Church (thought it was too much like Catholicism) and they wanted
to be "pure", hence the name the "Puritans".
1607 Went to Holland and practiced their faith
but their children
started growing up Dutch
so they left and wanted to build a real, isolated,
1620 Received a land grant from the Virginia Company. 101 people were put in
a boat and shipped over. (Half of them are "saints": People pre-destined and
elected by God to be saved). They came over in family groups via the Mayflower, under
William Bradford. They get blown off course and land at Cape Cod and found Province Town,
Mass. Its really cold though and a bunch of people starve.
November 20, 1620 The Mayflower Compact, a document creating a
self-governing institution, is created and signed. This is the FIRST government created by
the consent of the governed. It elects its own leaders and makes its own laws.
Spring 1620 A dude named Squanto comes along and says, "You guys suck!
Plant my corn this way
" They say, "COOL BEANS!" And so, corn becomes
a staple all over the place.
November 1621 Its been a year and they want to give thanks. Their
population never rose above 7000 people. This was Thanksgiving (DUH!)
1691 The colony is absorbed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony
The Massachusetts Bay Colony
settled by non-separating congregationalists: they wanted to hold together, not
they just wanted to reform by moving away for a while
1621 King Charles I gives a land grant to the MBC (the mouth of the Plymouth
River). Granted to John Winthorp as a "religious refuge": (This is similar to
Maryland, which is created for Catholics) This is also a different land grant because the
main office was IN THE COLONY, and not in England.
1630 Winthorp is on the Arbella and takes 6 other ships They settle
and establish Boston. Later in the year, 17 more ships (about 100,000 more people) come.
Winthorp becomes governor of Boston. A "General Court" is creates, which elects
the governor and his advisors. In order to vote, you had to be a "freeman",
you had no debts to the company
your land was free and clear (?)
you were a member in good standing with the church (Church and State went hand in hand)
Some dude named Roger Williams didnt like the way that they were treating
the Indians. He also suggested that the church and state should be separated, because the
church ruling the state makes the state corrupt.
1636 Williams was banished for having these opinions
Instead of crying
to his mom, he establishes the colony of Rhode Island with the help of the Indians (which
all have grown to love
Anne Hutchinson a woman who held "community meetings" and the like in
her home and became a prominent person. People thought that women shouldnt be doing
(?) Revelations: Antonimian Heresy all the rules: dont have to obey them,
because God said no. So kick her out in 1638
they bring her to court when shes pregnant. She refuses to change her mind,
so they kick her out for good. She becomes ill and her baby is stillborn (they say,
"Thats what she deserves!") So, she settles out of the near Portsmouth.
Her husband dies in 1642, so she settles on Long Island.
Connect I Cut!
Settled by more Puritan land seekers under Thomas Hooker
3 Congregations are formed and they get together and go
They just want more land and better land!
(?) Laws only reign over the community, so they changed the laws.
Connecticut opens their government to NON-church members (this is new!)
1638 John Davenport settles New Haven, CN
Start spreading the news
Im leaving today
I want to be a part of
Settled by the Dutch in 1614. Established a "trading
post" on the island of Manhattan
1626 Governor Peter Minuit buys Manhattan from the natives and calls it
Problems with the government: there is no "self-government" here, and total
control is given to the governor
this can get REALLY corrupt
People who were immigration in from all over the place are saying, "Damn this
" They arent even Dutch, so these immigrants dont
They are a MIXED population.
1664 Peter Stuyvesant is governor. The English come to try and take over
New Amsterdam, so the English and Dutch go to war. (The Dutch were previously allied with
the Spanish.) English come along with the navy, and Pete says, "Help
and everyone else says, "No way, man
So, the English take over and rename it as New York!
The Three Types of Colonies:
Corporate for stocks
like a corporation
Proprietary started by a specific group or company
One person owns
it all, one person controls it all
Royal Colonies run by the CROWN! (These are under the same laws as
England is: The British Constitution, English Common Law, etc.)
è MOST COLONIES WERE EITHER CORPORATE OR PROPRIETARY
Maryland The first Proprietary Colony
George Calvert an upper middle class kind of person. Had friends
like Sir Robery Cecil (who was secretary for the king!)
In 1617, he is knighted as Sir George so, he was a competent man
not a moron
1624 Converted to Catholicism (not good for someone in England!)
1625 In his 40s, he became the Baron of Baltimore and a member of
the House of Lords (rather than the House of Commons) He had risen up
was akward, because you usually inherit the position in the House of Lords
dont just "get" it
He ALSO tried his own colonization effort: Avalon in Newfoundland
it failed miserably.
He wanted to make a refuge for Catholics in England, so he brought it up with the King,
saying, "Hey, dude
Gimme some land so I can take these Catholics out of England
where we cant bother you
" King says
early 1630s, he begins to secure everything, trying to get the North Side of
the Potomac River (The "other" side of the Chesapeake Bay)
6 years later, he finally secured it all down
it was lots of work
He was all ready to go
but then he DIED! AHHHHHH!
He was succeeded by his son, Cecilius, named after Sir Robert Cecil. (Some say that
Cecilius was a lot better than his dad
he did his homework and knew what was up with
He took over and made his brother, Leonard Calvert, the governor of the new
They both sat down and made rules for how everythings gonna work
a big game
1634 The expedition lands on St. Clements, Chesapeake Bay. Father Andrew
White, a Jesuit priest, conducts the first English mass on American soil.
The only "problem" is that most of the people who came over arent even
theyre Protestant! (roughly a 4:1 ratio, P:C) So there are
lots of Protestant colonists, but the colony is owned Catholic
this presents just a
St. Marys becomes the 1st permanent settlement in Maryland.
Annapolis becomes the center of Protestant stuff in Maryland.
Religious toleration is enforced (just because its good politics!)
Good things: No Indians, Good Soil, and Tobacco grows soon!
Everything was smooth from then on out
except for small border disputes
thats when two dudes, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon came to adjust the
it went north about 4 miles and Maryland lost some land
is the fabled "Mason-Dixon Line"
Oats in a new jersey!
The Society of Friends, often called the Quakers
started by George Fox
It was during the time of the wars between the Anglicans and the Puritans when Mr. Fox
said, "Organized religion sucks! Lets just go for individual beliefs and no
I mean, theres nothing in the Bible that says that we have this
They were also Equalitarians (they didnt want war
) so, they treated
everyone the same way
from the lowest homeless guy to even royalty
like an insult to the king
) This wasnt accepted, so they all wanted to
MEANWHILE, George Carteret and John Berkley, two Anglicans, were asking Charles II for
a proprietary land grant in America for supporting him during the restoration .
Charles II said, "Cool!" Call it New Jersey!
1664 action set into motion
1665 Everything was authorized
Carteret and Berkley wrote a
"Concession and Agreement" which stated everything that they were about to do
and advertised it everywhere:
Religious Tolerance (Any faith accepted)
Whoever you want can come along
Liberal land policy
By 1665-1666, the Quakers had heard about the whole thing and they were coming
in by the dozen! It figures the Berkley and Carteret didnt get along too well, so
they divided up into West Jersey and East Jersey
1674 Berkley sells out to 9 men, who in turn sell out to 14 men
1680 Carteret sells out to 21 men
The end result is that there is a huge confusion over who owns what land
result, New Jersey didnt grow rapidly at all
1702 the crown takes back Jersey to resolve all conflicts, and so the
Governor of New York = the Governor of New Jersey
William Penn Sr. served in the Royal Navy and served Charles I and
Charles II (He was a well respected dude!)
1660 lived in the upper / middle class and sends his son (William Penn
JR.) to college
1662 Penn Jr. goes to Oxford University and becomes involved with the
1662-1665 - Penn Jr. travels throughout Europe on business with his dad.
This is when he starts looking into the Quakers. His dads horrified when he hears
that his son is interested. Penn Jr. was eventually converted in Ireland by Thomas Loe, a
Quaker Evangelist. So, Penn Sr, hated his son.
1670 Penn Sr. is on his death bed and ask, "You still a
Quaker?" His son says, "Yeah
" His dad says, "DAMN!" But he
got to inherit all of his stuff anyway
they reconciled their differences, and then
From 1670 to 1680, Penn Jr. was a Quaker Missionary, and he wanted a place where
Quakers could be cool and just chill like that
so he asked for a proprietary land
grant from the king and pushed for it
Actually, Penn Sr. was owed money which amounted to about $4 mil
but Penn Jr.
said, "Just gimme the land grant, and well call it even!" He said that he
Expand the Empire
Expand the Christian Faith
Get the Quakers out of here!
Name went from "New Wales" (That sucks)
to "Sylvannia" (Lots
of trees) to "Pennsylvannia" (for your dad
NOT FOR YOU!)
Land granted between the Delaware River and 5 degrees, and between 40 and 43 degrees N
(Now that they started realizing that the frontier stretched really far, they decided to
start limiting stuff down
Proppered (?) at first
Penn also wanted to make a "buffer zone" out to the sea to make sure they
werent blocked from shipping, wars, etc. So the three counties linking Pennsylvannia
up to the mouth of the river were collectively called Delaware.
In 1703, Delaware separates itself from Pennsylvannia
1663 by Anthony Ashely Cooper
His plan was to establish three mother counties on the coast of the Carolinas, and
expand westward coast to coast with it. They were to be established between 36 degreed N
and 31 degrees N. From top to bottom, the counties were Albemarle (renamed New Bern
later), Clarendon, and Craven.
Clarendon is soon closed because of "Cape Fear" lots of rocks and
hard to land
1667 Charlestown pops up in Craven.
The native tribes, the Yemassee, can take the pressure and are forced to move out.
In 1712, split to N. Carolina and S. Carolina major exports were Rice
& Indigo (for aristocrats that wanted lots of blue dye
) Tobacco and Naval Stores
(tar off of trees) became very important because ships could make repairs here. (Their
team is called the Tar Heels!)
1732 James Edward Oglethorpe decides to try and set stuff
(He will be the only colony founder who will see his colony become its own
Began in 1722, when he joined a reform movement
Argued that you got to put them somewhere to rehabilitate them
and that they
cant pay the bill if theyre locked up in jail! (It was a 100% social
1732 the land is granted, and in 1733, the wheels begin to turn.
Started to send social workers into prisons to find the right type of people who could
fit in at Georgia.
The main city was Savannah.
21 Trustees ruled wth Oglethorpe.
The charter had limited time: 21 years, and then ownership would revert back to the
Three major laws:
no alcohol (retreated they were making their own)
no slavery (retreated started bringing in slaves in 1749)
no private ownership of land (retreated eventually, they started giving it
Georgia grew to about 7000 people
and it was ok (experimentally
How people GOT to the New World!
By the 19th century, America has more or less been formed.
mostly free workers was on the land for themselves
voluntary white servitude:
indentured servants sold his service for X amount of years. It cost about
5-6 pounds to cross over to the New World, and that meant anywhere from 2 to 7 years of
service. You sell yourself to the captain and the Captain will handle you until delivery.
Indentured servants could be sold for 15 to 20 pounds. (Nice profit!) Some ports wanted to
buy "parcels" as many servants as possible are bought at once. Well-being
of the servant was the responsibility of the master. "Freedom dues" when the
service period was over: thousands of people came like this. The system worked pretty
well. Most of them were male and English. So, they werent all that different from
Redemptioners mostly Germans
there were few differences between
them and the indentured servants. They tried to avoid going into servitude as much as
possible by trying to find friends and family who would be willing to buy them as soon as
è A.E. Smith wrote in Colonists in Bondage
that anywhere from 300 thousand to 400 thousand people came this way.
involuntary white servitude:
convicts in 1718, Parliament passed the Transportation Act, which
allowed convicts to serve their sentences as workers in America. Crimes went for anywhere
from 7 to 14 years. If you were a Felon (murdered), then your sentence was life. Men were
transported via Ships of War or other contracted ships, usually from Bristol England.
50,000 convicts were shipped. They took the name, "His Majestys Seven Year
Passengers". 85-90% were male (duhhh). Anywhere from mid teens to late teens, then
were mostly in for BIG crimes
America becomes a dumping ground for everyone else
Shanghai people could also get kidnapped and be unwilling sold into
servitude (Dont stay out on the docks at night!) Parliament tries to stop it around 1717,
but it really doesnt do much because you can never really know whether or not the
"kidnapped" are really telling the truth.
è Meanwhile, America still needed a reliable, stable
these spots were filled by the slaves
Slavery especially on plantations and farms, they were needed. Slave labor began
in 1503, when : "Moors" are sold as slaves by the Spanish. They were
first imported in 1881 in Brazil. 1619 the first 20 of them are sold in
In The Midddle Passage, Daniel Mannix speculates that at least 15,000,000 people
make it over to America as African slaves. There is a high death rate on ships, so this
number could be much higher
the main currency in the slave trade was rum
the route went from America, to Africa, to the West Indies, etc.
the slaves were packed away in barracoons. They went around to the West Indies first,
where they sold the dangerous slaves. And then, they went on to America
had no idea what was going on.
You either packed them LOOSE or you packed them TIGHT
Slave ships SMELL
They were bond servants for life: They had almost no hope for freedom: no weapons, no
education, cant testify against whites, no private property, no assembly, and there
were big laws / penalties for runaways
BUT WHY DID SLAVERY PROSPER?
It was VERY profitable you could bring in TONS of rum
slaves didnt like it, but people then didnt care. EVERYONES humanity is
diminished because of slavery. Racism rises, and America becomes a slavery dependent
nation. New York and Virginia have the most number of slaves. South Carolina has the
largest percentage of slaves.
Slavery now becomes a widely accepted practice!
THE OPPOSITION TO SLAVERY:
1688 In Germantown, PA, people start to protest. The Quakers didnt
want slaves. They rallied to set all slaves free, and then stop all incoming slaves. It
never happened, though
John Woolman Quaker reformer leading the Anti-Slavery crusade said that,
"Slavery is an unacceptable moral evil."
1701 Samuel Seawall stands against slavery
END IT NOW!
THE EMERGENCE OF SELF GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA:
(America has a high degree of self government
12/13 colonies have a bicameral legislation (Pennsylvannia is the 13th one)
The Government was either:
Royal owned by the crown
Proprietary owned by own person
Corporate owned by several people through joint stock
The function of governor was to:
Military the militia call all able bodied free men
Judicial could be the chief justice
The Lt. Governor is paid little, but is still very powerful. He could veto the
Under that is the Upper House and the Lower House
UPPER HOUSE: the older, richer folks:
appointed by the governor
small upperhouse: 12-30 people
conservative: didnt want change
NORTH: the assistants, SOUTH: the council
acts as the legislative body
advises the Lt. Gov and the Gov
judicial body (could serve on the court)
LOWER HOUSE: the more common dudes:
elected by the people
the other legislative body
61X2 = 122 members
NORTH: the House of Representatives, SOUTH: the House of Burgesses
NORTH: Divided into townships
SOUTH: Divided into counties
Extra positions: Sheriff, Clerk, and Surveyor
Justice of the People à County Courts à Colonial Court à the Privy
Council (in England)
TO VOTE OR HAVE OFFICE: FREEMAN with 50 pounds worth of stuff
(makes sure that
SUMMING UP THE COLONIAL PERIOD!
The colonial period lays the foundation for a self-government on common wealth.
There were some tentative steps towards intercolonial government.
The New England Confederation: (The United Colonists of New England)
The GRAND COUNCIL = 2 from each of the four = 8
Not a real body: just a little round table discussion
then they just suggested
answer to their respective governments
not real power
it was more like a
"Debating Society". Also did stuff to talk about taxation, the militia, Native
American war, diplomacy, runaway servants and intercolonial crime. This whole thing
wasnt really successful, however, since it was a VOLUNTARY effort to all get
The Dominion of New England
This was created by the crown
The Navigation Acts:
Any cargo carried to & from must be on English ships (keep foreigners out of the
Lists only the stuff allowed to be traded in the Empire
Anything/Everything had to go through England
The bonding system: had to post bond (ship + cargo)
Punishment for not obeying laws, etc.
THE ANGLO FRENCH WARS 1684-1760
The French had hit Louisiana and were taking it North. England had landed on the coast
and were headed to intercept while going east.
1683-1684 minor skirmishes
Iroquois sides with the English, the Algonquin side with the French
The first formal war, King Williams War lasts 8 years: starts in 1689. It really
didnt settle anything, though
Feb. 1689 the Schnectady Massacre
The French know that they
cant push the English out totally, but they just hope to scare them all to death so
theyll stop going east. So, they decided to use their Indian Allies as a shield to
block them. The town is overwhelmed and obliterated by surprise, and is sent as a sign.
Thomas Quick father was killed by Indians, so he became an Indian killer
and vowed to kill 100.
1703-1713 Queen Annes War (Started in Europe and spread to
NY, and NE frontier
1744-1748 King Georges War Georgia just
War also in Georgia on the Spanish Florida front. (This was another
inconclusive war!) Wars just get bigger and bigger
FINALLY, the French and Indian War (the 7 years war): Starts in America and head to
Europe front for control of the Ohio. (1754-1760)
1755 General Braddocks expedition annihilated trying to take over a
French fort on the river.
Eventually, the French are defeated and driven out. War ended in 1763 with the
Treaty of Paris.
This establishes the English fully in America
All the while, there are tons of self-governing people, and American Nationalism is on
The war debt created by this war gives America a window with which to declare