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So you History Notes:

(Here we go!)


A long narrative on HISTORY:

Lecture 1:

What does History focus on?

History is the total sum of the activites of MAN (not anything else… not fish… not birds… but of MAN…)

It’s been agreed upon that the Universe is about 20 Billion years old

The Earth’s probably been around for 4 Billion years

Mankind seems to have been around for at least 4 Million years (This is when history BEGINS… that’s a LONG time!)

Demography is the study of population (i.e. the Census Bureau is comprised of a bunch of demographers)

Historical Demography, therefore, has TONS of applications. It can give us a look into what has happened in the past and can help predict what will occur in the future.

6000 B.C. – (Pre-Egypt) About 5 million people exist on the whole planet. (This is about 1/3 of what Texas is today… this isn’t much) At that point in time, it’s probably that man has spread throughout all of the earth to all the parts where they are now… it’s just that the population density is pretty thin.

The Agrarian Revolution occurs around 6,000 B.C. , taking root (no pun intended) in the fertile areas of the world, especially Mesopotamia (the Fertile Crescent).

SO, rather than hunting and gathering, you can have food wherever YOU are. All you need is a little bit of water (irrigation). You have a RELIABLE food supply.

It’s important to notice that when the food supply increases, the population will ALSO increase to "eat up" the surplus food.

1650 A.D. – a BIG jump. American History (as we know it) begins to develop. There are now 500 million people on the earth. (So, over the course of 7000 years, there are now 100x more people… you math people can calculate the derivative of this… J )

For example, in France, there is anywhere from 12-15 million people. In 1485 (Henry VII, the Tudor Dynasty), the English population includes about 3 million people. By 1603, (the death of Elizabeth I) there are about 4 mil people.

Because of this increase of people, the age of IMPERIALISM begins. This is the "force" behind the move.

Everyone wants to get out of the country because life is starting to suck in England!

The three purposes of EMPIRES (as in Imperial Empires):

Raw Materials – to feed the economy: wood to make paper, berries to make jam, shit to make shit

New Markets – again, for the economy: The British wanted to trade with the Chinese… because the Chinese had gunpowder, silk, spices, tea, and most importantly, RAMEN!

An outlet for surplus population – imperialistic empires can take care of their overcrowding problem by shoving everyone else overseas

1850 A.D. – 1 Billion people in inhibit the Earth. (check this: from 1650 A.D. – in 200 years, there are twice as many people… go figure… is the derivative going higher?) The Industrial Revolution has set on!

improved machinery, etc., including FOOD PRODUCTION (gee… more food… what does that mean?)

irrigation systems improve (uhh… more food?)

better types of seeds (uhh… more, BETTER food?)

less people needed to produce the same amount of food, so these people can not be farmers and go do other stuff.

It is also speculated that the climate begins to warm during this period

You see from about 900 to 1400 A.D., it started to begin to get just a tad bit colder… not sever weather or anything, just a tad bit colder.

Then, from 1400 – 1850 A.D., a "little ice age" began, and weather was cold… lots of people died…. This also affected any ships trying to make journey’s across the Atlantic, because it’s REALLY COLD THERE!

Anyway, as an effect of this Industrial Revolution:

there were TONS more food (Surprise!)

the "little ice age lifts", so growing seasons get longer… (hence, more FOOD!!!!!!!)

Lots of technology being made to make EVEN MORE FOOD!!!!

(Do you understand the main force behind the growing population? It was MORE FOOD!)

1930 A.D. – World Population reaches 2 billion (during the periods of Stallin, the Nazis, the Depression, and President Hoover)

1974 A.D. – World Population increases to 4 billion (note: this is twice as many people in just 44 years… calculate the derivative now!) Can’t calculate the slope? It’s an alarming increase of about 70 million people annually. (And this DERIVITVE is ALSO increasing!!!) At this rate, the population would double every 37 years!

So this means:

In 2011 A.D. – the population could hit 8 billion

And in 2048 A.D. – we would have at least 16 billion people to deal with

(It just keeps getting bigger!!!)

BY THE YEAR 2900 A.D. – there will be 60 Million BILLION people on the planet earth.

There will be 100 people per LIVABLE SQUARE FOOT OF EARTH

So, Vice President Gore went to Egypt with a whole bunch of other government leaders to try and figure out what they could do about this problem, and debate whether or not the earth would be able to handle it at all. Unfortunately, it went nowhere… the major opposition behind it was the Muslims: they saw it as a way to keep their population down. They were "offended".

So, we import resources because all of the people here in the U.S. use up too much NRG.

Unchecked population growth can have SERIOUS convulsions… Just think about – there are 2 new people on this planet EVERY SECOND! From a certain perspective, the people can all "share" the resources that they have, or they can find a way to make more resources to have the same amount that we are all having now.

Throughout History, it’s been the GOVERNMENT’S JOB to control population (For example, Social Security?)

Are there enough resources? Technology has run out. Will man be smart enough to stop his own onslaught of the planet? (Remember the example Dr. Bowman gave us about killing off all of the left handers in the world? Is that really going to work?) The world creates more problems than can be solved in time!

Lecture Two:

Non-Indian, Pre-Columbian contact with America (the "New World")

There were actually TONS of people reaching America before Columbus did… Old textbooks only talk briefly about it.

600 B.C. – The Phoenicians hit South America (the were people from the Mediterranean area that were big on sailing and trading) – They were probably trying to circumnavigate Africa to get around to China or something when they were blown off course. In 1872, a large stone tablet was found in Brazil which said, "To whom it may concern: We, the Phoenician type dudes, landed on this here land… We don’t know where the fuck we are, but we’ll be going along now… see ya…!" There was lots of controversy over this stone, especially as to whether or not it was fake. The original owner of the stone made a couple tracings of the stone… and then the stone was lost. Jules Piccus accidentally bought a tracing of the stone at an auction, and a dude named Cyrus Gordon helped him out and looked at it. The suspected that the stone was actually LEGIT.

450 A.D. – Huui Shan (not a type of Chinese food) was a dude from Afghanistan. He turned into a Buddhist monk and came to China to seek "the enlightened one" (or something like that… he just wanted to be "one with himself," I guess… ) So, he left China in 458 to try and find the magical land of Fusang (Japan?). He then returned in 499 to report the lands he had seen to China’s current emporer, Wu Ti (so, he’s had a voyage that’s lasted about 41 years!!!). Huui Shan was thinking that he had really reached Japan… But a dude in the 1880’s named H.H. Bancroft said, "uhhh… no… I don’t think so!" He theorized that Huui Shan and his crew could have hit North America. Edward Vining disagreed with this, however. (Whatever…) One of them (don’t know which one) wrote a book called Inglorious Columbus. In Huui Shan’s journals, the land was described as having many giant redwood trees and lots of moving ground (earthquakes?). Could Huui Shan and his dudes have crossed the Bering Strait and sailed down the coast to California? Two pieces of evidence support this: 1. Some recent people found Chinese artifacts while digging out ground for a highway in California, and 2. Indians in the area recall a time when there were "strangers" who came among them.

700 A.D. – the NORSEMEN (people from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden… not exactly VIKINGS… because Vikings were Outlaws… not all Norsemen were Vikings, but all Vikings were Norsemen) By this time, overpopulation was becoming a problem and people needed to move. The Vikings were tough sailors and warriors, and they loved to go raid people who were less fortunate than themselves. After a while, people could take it anymore, so they paid money to bribe the Vikings not to hurt them… this became an almost yearly "tax", which turned into what is known as the "Danegeld"… Anyway, that’s where the word Berzerk came from… "BERZERK" was their battle cry, and they were ferocious, tenacious (SAT WORD!) warriors that just couldn’t be controlled. So if you’ve gone "berserk", then you can’t be controlled.

The Vikings had 4 major navigational tools, and they all had to do with the sky:

the North Star

the Moon

the Sun

and RAVENS (after being let out of the cage, they would fly high and try to find land…. If they did, they’d go after it immediately, and they Vikings would just follow the bird.)

795 A.D. – the Vikings find Iceland

870 A.D. – they begin to settle Iceland

930 A.D. – Iceland’s population at 30,000 people

970 A.D. – first contact with Greenland (what they called Thule, in 978 A.D.)

981 A.D. – A dude named Eric the Red from Norway came to Iceland to live. He was then sent to a 3 year exile in Greenland (he was being a Berserk at home…)

985 A.D. – He said, "Hey that wasn’t so bad… why don’t we go back and settle with 3,000 people?" So, he did!

986 A.D. – Bjarni Herjulfson was a dude from Europe who came to Iceland to see his family… but everyone on Iceland said, "Hey… they moved with Eric the Red to Thule!" So, he went over there. BUT, he got lost, blown off course, and actually made visual contact with America. He said, "Damn! That’s not it!", so he started this weird zigzag pattern off the coast of America until he hit Thule and said, "Cool… I’m here…!"

1000 A.D. – Lief Ericson (son of Eric the Red) heard about his journey to this unknown land (America). He set out on an expedition to go see what he could conquer in America. Too bad NO ONE WAS THERE!!! He said, "This place sucks!" (Well, actually, there were some people called the SKRAELINGS, but that didn’t do anything…) There was lots of timber and caribou there though, so the trip wasn’t a total waste, I guess…

1004 A.D. – Thorvald Ericson (you guessed it, Lief’s bro!) decided to try and follow his brother’s route. Unfortunately, Thorvald got killed while he was in a battle over there, and his body was left to rot. Soon after, Thorvald’s (Thor for short J ) wife was converted to Christianity, so she wanted his body so they could bury it.

1008 A.D. – ANOTHER brother, Thorstein, was sent to find the body, but he couldn’t…. L

1010 A.D. – A dude named Thorfinn Karlscvni wanted the "goods" (the resources in America I guess), but he couldn’t find America anymore…

Someone named J.R. Enterline theorized that the Vikings took control of the area for about 300 years.

1390 A.D. – it’s getting MUCH colder (remember the "little ice age"?) Anyway, by this time, Eskimos from N. America have made it to Greenland and saw the Vikings having lots of internal conflicts… After a while, the Viking Settlements were found abandoned… they probably went back to Iceland.

Leo Weiner theorized that Africans probably landed in Brazil. He was working in a Spanish Archive when he found manuscripts and reports from Missionaries reporting to the crown that the Indians were spotting "black" people BEFORE the onslaught of "white" people.

1450 A.D. – Fishermen probably hit N. America – Had English fishermen followed the migrating schools of fish over to Newfoundland?


Prince Henry the Navigator (1391-1460)- He started a university at the Strait of Gibraltar. He funded annual trips down the coast of Europe in an attempt to find a route to China through the southern end of Africa. Each expedition would use stones as markers to mark their progress around the coast of Africa. Little by little, each expedition would go farther down. Using these points, they also charted the western coast of Africa.

1488 – Bartholemeu Diaz – the first guy to sail around the "tip" of Africa. After that, Vasco de Gama followed this route farther around the "Cape of Good Hope" & went right around to Asia.

Andre Biancho – and Italian mapmaker, asked by the King of Portugal to draw a map of the world as he knew it. Europe was drawn pretty accurately. There was a small island called "Authentic Island" in Latin, however… With 12-14% allowance for size, it kinda looked like Brazil. Columbus heard about it and thought it was Asia. He was convinced that he would eventually find a westward route to Asia.

Columbus was the right man who was at the right place at the right time… !


Lecture 3: Who was Columbus?

Quite possibly the most famous figure in the western world… (And quite possibly the world’s most perfect nutcake?) Born in 1451, Died in 1506. Born in Geneva (Italy) as Cristofo Colombo (which translates over, to Christopher Columbus, I guess…) His family consisted of a long line of wool weavers (artisans) and they were about middle class. Cristofo was well educated, fluent in 4 languages, math, geography, and astronomy. He was pretty tight with his family.

1470 – he decided to become a seaman (no… don’t think that…) – He signed on with a dude named Rene Anjou and his ships. He was 3rd mate for about 5-6 years. He thought it was awesome… just doing simple trading, etc. and he learned the entire Mediterranean.

1476 – In one trip to England, the French attacked Anjou and his ships (with Columbus on board) and they ended up in Portugal. Columbus lived in Lisbon to help his brother sell maps, but he thought it sucked… he didn’t want to SELL the maps… he wanted to be the guy people talked to in order to MAKE maps… Columbus wanted to EXPLORE.

1477-1484 – Went everywhere with his new Portuguese navigator’s license that he had just earned (now that he sold maps, etc.) He decided that he wanted to try and go WEST to China (Actually, in his language, Cipangu = Japan, and Cathay = China). Columbus was really religious (he might’ve been a saint because he said that one of the main reasons he wanted to get to China was to make them all Catholic). He also wanted to have a "Crusade"… go figure, though…

Influences on Columbus:

Pierre d’Ailly, Imago Mundo (Views of the World) – 1410 – said that "the oceans really aren’t as big as anyone else thinks… in fact, they’re pretty SMALL!" From this, Columbus got to thinking that there’s actually more land than water. Columbus’ guess was that 1 degree (360 degrees on the globe) is equal to 56.6 = circumference of the earth is 19,000 miles. The ACTUAL retail price, however, is 1 degree = 69.0 = circumference of the earth is 25,000 miles.

Marco Polo, Description of the World – Italy to China and Back!

1484 – Columbus tried to sell his expedition idea to the Portuguese King’s advisors. They turned him down because:

We’re almost around Africa anyway! Why should we give YOU money? (Remember Prince Henry the navigator’s school? Checkout the timeline and match it up…)

He’s a FOREIGNER! (He’s from Italy… I know he means well, but I don’t like his accent… J )

Gee… 6-8 weeks without sight of land… can you people really HANDLE that? That’s longer than anyone else has ever tried before…

1485 – More determined than ever, he went to Spain to try and sell it to them.

Queen Isabella said, "No thanks… but nice try… stick around will ya?" So they gave him money to just sit around on his ass and think…

Besides, Spain was at war with the Moors (Muslims)

1488 – Goes back to Portugal and hopes to sell them the idea… by this time, however, Bartholemeu Diaz has already made it around Africa, so they say, "NO WAY!"

1492 – Spain takes over Granada, the last Muslim strongpoint. So, they say, "Now that we’ve got them out of the way, Christopher, we’ll give you just a tad bit of money… you’ve got to go find the rest, OK?" Enthused more than ever, he does it.

He was granted to titles of Admiral of the Seas and Viceroy. (The viceroy part is important because it gives him the power to reign as he sees fit for anything not already under a Christian prince. He could even get all the money from taxes, etc.!)

August 3, 1942 – Columbus sets sail for ASIA?! (From the Canary Islands)

… 7 weeks later…

Columbus finally makes landfall in the Bahamas (San Salvador – Watlings Island) He was greeted well by the Arawak Indians, and Columbus was disappointed cause he didn’t see gold and silver everywhere… but he decided to call them Indians anyway… He then sailed south the Cuba, then Haiti / The Dominican Republic (Santo Domingo). Then, after getting shipwrecked, he decided to found "La Navidad" on Christmas morning.

March 15, 1493 – "I was on the edge of Asia, Isabella… I swear!!!"

So, they give it to him w/ full force. He sets off on a 2nd expedition with 17 ships and 12,000 people. Finding money now was not a problem at all, because everyone wanted in on this new "westward route". When he came back, however, he found that La Navidad was annihilated. He went to the south side and founded Santo Domingo and sent out small voyages to try and find "mainland" Asia.

1496 – Returns to Spain and there was trouble. The crown starts to rethink, "Woah… he’s found a LOT of shit so far… maybe we gave him too much control, eh?"

Sets out for a THIRD voyage… he goes too far south, however, and hits South America and possibly the Amazon river. Comes back up to Santo Domingo. There’s a civil war going on and everything’s amuch because they were abusing the Indians. In the mean time, the Crown had sent Francisco Bobadilla, a Spaniard, to survey how the colonies were doing… after finding out that they sucked, he arrested Columbus and his brothers (who were helping to rule the colony) and sent them back and stripped Columbus of his title. Columbus got mad at the crown because Francisco had treated him badly… The crown said that they were sorry, but they wouldn’t give his titles back. By now, he was in serious trouble.

1502 – The fourth expedition. Columbus was told to STAY AWAY FROM SANTO DOMINGO, so he did. He hit at Honduras and went down to Panama.

1504 – Back in Spain. After loosing all of his credibility, he can no longer get funding for another voyage. Not only that, but Isabella dies.

May 20, 1506 – Died in Valladolid : By now, there is TONS of traffic between Spain and the "New World." Columbus was the man who helped open that door, but too bad he’ll never REALLY be able to see what’s on the other side. In his honor, however, they decided to build him a shrine and rebury him in Santo Domingo. Then, in 1795, they decided that they should move him to Havana Cuba.

1890 – the Spanish American war brought him back to Spain (Spanish Nationalism), but they couldn’t figure out whether or not they got the right bones.

Go figure: A dude named Amerigo Vespucci said that he also made 4 trips. He wrote to Martin Waldseemuller, a cosmographer (map maker) about it all and he said, "Whatever, dude…"

Then in 1507, when he finally drew a map with what was known as "Terra Incognita", he named them North and South America, after the guy that HE first knew as going to the New World.

A great book: The Columbian Exchange by A.W. Crosby is NOT about cocaine smuggling. Rather, it’s about Spain’s claim to the New World and how it affected BOTH parties. For one, diseases like Small Pox and syphilis were carried to kill all the Indians. L In exchange, the Europeans got corn (maize, actually… it grew anywhere and it was great!) and potatoes (which somehow became the staple of the Irish… go figure, eh?) Seems like a fair trade, doesn’t it? Indians get killed while the Europeans get more food to increase their already huge population? Uh-huh Uh-huh Uh-Huh… (da da da… J )

Lecture #4: The Indians


It’s been theorized that in 1492, the Native American population could have been bigger than Europe… (no way!)

4500 B.C. – Man appears in N. America. There are 6 major migrations into N. America (ancestors of the "natives") & many languages signify that there were long periods of isolation. (Almost 100% pure A & B type blood has been found among certain Indian tribes). After some time, tribes simply could not communicate with each other. When Europe came, however, the tribes were forced to come together to fight against a common enemy.

It was theorized that there were around 1,000,880 people when Columbus arrived.

1960 – When the Indian population was counted there were only 523,591 of them. This brought a up a huge debate on whether or not the 1 million people estimate could be real… what could have possibly gone wrong? In any case, this is the ONLY population in history that contracts rather than expands during the 1500’s. The cause is probably disease, NOT mass genocide by the Europeans.

The Four Major Indian Nations:

The Algonquin

grouped due to linguistics

lived in the areas of Canada, New England, and the Great Lakes.

They are the 2nd most numerous in N. America

The Iroquian

another linguistic group

lived in the Finger Lakes area of New York

comprised of 5 Indian nations to form the Iroquian Confederacy:

3rd largest group in North America






(The Tuscarora are added in 1750)

the name Iroquian is Algonquin for "rattlesnake". (Now you know what they thought of the Iroquian!)

Organized very well for politics, not really for war. In order to protect their "business", they sent out a war party to destroy everyone who tried to kill their clients.

The Muskhogan

another linguistic group

lived in a benign climate with rich soil everywhere (in the south central part of the continent) ; as a result, had more farms for more food.

Because of this "food" advantage, they were THE largest group in the U.S. TONS of TONS of nations

The Caddoan

not much here… they just lived on the Mississippi and were fur trappers


What do you ENGLISH people want???

Show me the MONEY! – wealth, increased food supply. They also wanted to find the N.W. passage through North America, in hopes of getting to Asia via a westward route.

The Unification of England – In the 1600, the English thought they were all that and a bag of chips. I mean, everybody else was thinking that too… this surge of nationalism pushed England forward to go for everything (including creating an empire). Anglos saw it as their job to carry the "Anglo-Saxon way" forward to all parts of the world.

Overpopulation – the population was growing fast. As a result, there were often food shortages, unemployment, and social disorder. They REALLY needed WOOD (for "stuff" and fuel). They thought about using N. America as a huge resource pot.

The Commercial Revolution in Europe – people just wanted to TRADE and MAKE MONEY! Empires offered a way to sell surplus commodities to people who really needed them.

Rivalry w/ Spain – they had to show that they were better, in both religion (Catholicism vs. Protestantism) and for the sake of Nationalism. Whoever had the most colonies was awesome, and the other person was just a dork.

Adventure – Hey, you could get sick, poisoned, bitten by a rattlesnake or even die… woo hoo for adventure!!!

The English set foot on American Soil –

It all begins with a dude named Giovanni Caboto. He was an Italian who was born just 4 years after Columbus was (so they grew up in the same era). Caboto grew up in Venice and followed Columbus’ work carefully.

1490 – Caboto sets up residency in Bristol, England. Because he’s living in England, he’s got to have an English name, so he is magically transformed into John Cabot. His goal was to go to Cathay (China) and trade and get rich, so he decided to work as a seaman to get some contacts so he could try and sell his idea.

1497 – He finally convinces Henry VII that they should let him go find the NW passage. (Just for the money… no crusading or anything like Columbus did). So, when he sets sail, he makes landfall on Cape Brenton Island. This was England’s first territorial claim to the New World. Then, he just scanned the coast and, after staking is claim, just went back home.

1498 – Went out on another expedition, but he never returned…

At that point Henry VII had BIGGER problems to worry about, like the Reformation and the focus on Internal Problems. He didn’t care much about what had happened.

1553 – Hugh Willoughby and John Chancellor sell the King on the idea of finding a NorthEAST passage. Unfortuantely, it was kinda cold and H.W. died on the way. So, Chancellor landed ASAP and found himself at Muscovy (Russia). He talked to them when he got there and opened up trade between Muscovy and England. From this emerged the Muscovy (Joint-Stock) Company, and it made Chancellor REALLY wealthy… (They had a bunch of Raccon hats or something…)

During this time, England’s Seadogz were ruling the seas, attacking Spanish PLATE FLEETS (Spanish ships just sitting carrying gold and silver). Francis Drake was the most infamous of them all, raiding tons of ships that were posted around the northeastern coast of South America. After he raided all the ships, he went down the coast of S. America and came back up the other side. The Spanish decided to wait him out, because he’d have to come back that way in order to get back home. Instead, Drake decided to keep going west, and became the first to hit San Francisco harbor. He finally reached England the other way around and became the 2nd person to ever circumnavigate the globe.

The story of the Richard Hakluyts (There was an elder and younger, and they were cousins…)

Richard the Elder studied law in the 1560’s. As a hobby, he began to gather all the information on world colonization efforts around the world. (Because at this time, no other country had any idea what anyone else was claiming)… Eventually, however, he died.

1582 - Richard the Younger decided to take over for him. He was a clergyman and scholar and made his cousin’s information available to the public in a book called Notes. (Wow… really great title there, eh?) England was barely listed anywhere, however. This was a wakeup call to them that they were falling behind. In short, the Richard Hakluyts were responsible for making the New World attractive to colonization efforts… it was an area that wasn’t totally taken yet, and the English still had a fighting chance at it. He also published Divers Voyages, a book about what voyages were going on from 1492 (Columbus) to 1582 (the present). In 1583, he published A Discourse on Western Planting. Although it was meant to be a handy gardening reference book, Queen Elizabeth took it as a signal that the English shouldn’t just sit on their asses but DO SOMETHING! (Silly Queen!)

1578 – A dude named Humphrey Gilbert reads Discourse (as soon as it gets published) and he is motivated. His goal was to build a central HQ in America… a FORTIFIED area from which England could spawn their colonies… He got a PATENT (approval) from the Crown to try and do this in 1583. After he left in, he made landfall at Newfoundland. After hitting, he got caught in a storm and his ship alone (with him on it!) was lost.

1584 – The charter is transferred over to his half brother, Walter Raleigh. Came out with Phil Anradas and Arthur Barlowe and decided to go for Roanoke Island. They left and made landfall there in 1585.

1585 – They say, "Hey… cool… there are nice Indians here, the island is well harbored, and the water table is pretty high (we can just dig into the ground to get fresh water…)… GREAT!" So they decided to try and setup the first Roanoke Colony here. This was the first effort to permanently colonize the New World for the English. They thought, "Hey… it’s kinda warm and tropically over here… but I guess we’ll get used to it…" But, they weren’t used to the area at all… and they ended up learning everything the hard way… with LOTS of people dying… L The Manteo and Wanchese Indians lived around here.

They made lots of MISTAKES by setting up here:

Bad Location – little did they know that the island, so far away from the mainland, was vulnerable to severe weather (hurricanes?). It was also had a low elevation, was malarial, and very swampy.

Friends as Colonists – I guess you can’t blame him for this… he was a "gentleman"… (i.e. he was UNEMPLOYED)… and he didn’t know any better about what to do… by getting his friends to be colonists, he was under particular pressure. But, what didn’t help, was the fact that all his friends were morons too! (when it came to building a colony). GET CRAFTSMEN TO COLONIZE YOU MORON!

The expedition was lead by Ralph Lane – a bad thing, however, was that he tried to make a serious effort to convert the Indians… and so, several brawls turned into armed clashes, which turned to REALLY bad relations… (morons)…by 1586, the colony turned into an armed military camp because the Indian were constantly trying to kick their asses off the island. After a while, they are desperate…

Good old SIR Francis Drake (now knighted for having raided tons of Spanish ships) checks up on the colony after another successful raid. While he’s there, a huge storm destroys just about everything, so they all decided to get a ride home with Drake… (Thanks dude!) As a result, in 1587, the 1st Roanoke Colony is lost.

In the Spring of 1587, Walter Raleigh tries to think of another plan and corrects his two big mistakes:

Simon Ferdinando and John White were put in charge of the expedition. Ferdinando said, "Why don’t we give Roanoke another try instead of going to the inside of the Chesapeake Bay? I don’t give a shit about what Raleigh thinks… I think I can make it work!"… so White says, "OK dude… right on!" (Boy did THEY wear big L’s on their foreheads! J )

John White’s daughter was among the colonists, and she was the first to bear a child IN the New World. She was called Virginia, and so, the entire area began to be known as Virginia

After it’s all more or less setup, White goes back to England because he’s got "chores" to do…

By that time, it’s 1588 and news that the Spanish are saving up an Armada to destroy the English gets around. All ships are immediately enlisted into the Royal Navy. So White has to sit around cause he doesn’t have a g-ride back to Roanoke.

1589 – everything’s OK and the English wards off the Spanish Armada (boy do they suck… J ) White gets on a ship, but the ship decides to go to the Caribbean to hit Spanish Plate ships that were extremely vulnerable (since the Spanish Armada was already gone). As a result, White just got a trip to nowhere, and he returns to England.

1590 – Finally he gets back. But no one is there. 100+ people are missing, and Roanoke has been abandoned. On one of the gates there is the following message (signaling that they had fled):


On yet another door, there is the following:


Totally befuddled and thoroughly bemused, they try and find the colonists on a nearby island.


Wiped away in a hurricane.

The Spanish picked them off.

Indians chopped them up into bits and used them as fertilizer.

Or any combination of the three for that matter!

1590 – Everything is LOST… White goes back to tell Raleigh… Raleigh tells him that he is a MORON!!!!! They come back later and fire signal guns all around the area every 3 hours, but no one is there to answer. As a result, the 2nd Roanoke colony is lost. By this time, the colonization effort will temporarily stop because Queen Elizabeth I dies (And the Tudor dynasty is gone)

1603 – James VI of Scotland is invited to take the throne, and he emerges as James I.

1606 – James I owes a lot of favors to all the people who backed him. A lot of them wanted grants to colonies in the New World, so the Virginia Company is formed. Everything between 34 degrees N and 45 degrees N, coast-to-coast, was claimed. This is roughly everything between Charleston and Maine. (Hey… they didn’t know it would be that big…!)

The Virigina Company is split into two parts: the Plymouth Company and the London Company. The Virgina Company splits the land so there is a 100 mile buffer zone between the claims of the Plymouth and London Companies. Plymouth gets the upper half (41 – 45 degrees N) and London gets the lower half (34 – 38 degrees N). They are hoping to find THE passage in the Chesapeke Bay area (the buffer zone)… the reason for putting the bay in the buffer zone is that if it IS found, then they want to make sure that everyone will be able to use it.

The Plymouth Company:

They’re the first to move out – on the Kennebee River

Led by Gilbert’s Son, Raleigh Gilbert, and George Poppin (?)

Goal is to build a fortified outpost on their side (gee… doesn’t THAT sound familiar)

Unfortunately, it’s not very well organized at all…

Bad things:

It’s COLD!!! (They couldn’t survive the harsh northern climate that they got…)

They setup in a place that wasn’t easy to get in/out of (lots of rocks and stuff like that… not natural harbor that was easy…)

Tides always hurt them… always high… or something like that… Big tides kept them inside…

The settled in Abonaki Indian Territory – they are BAD INDIANS who wanted them all to DIE!

As a result, the colony is withdrawn after 15 months…

The London Company:

- The London group settles on the Chesapeake Bay 2 weeks after the Plymouth group sets foot (?) They hit land at "Point Comfort" (called it this because it was the first time anyone had made a Winter Crossing, and it was SO COLD!!! 8 or 9 people died…) They were under the command of Christopher Newport.

Advantages over the Plymouth Company:

much more organized, financed, and led

more benign climate (not a hostile winter)

more fertile soil (always a plus!)

hospitable Indians: the Algonquins the Powhatan Confederacy. (14-18 tribes now), led by chief Powhatan…

1609 - They immediately established an alliance with the new white man because they wanted weapons… this reciprocal arrangement was good for a while

(It seemed to the English that they were getting a hell of a deal… they traded common place items like knifes and guns, stuff commonplace in England, with exotic furs, etc. They thought they were getting a hell of deal and ripping off the Indians… Well, the Indians thought the same of the English too! They said, "Gee… all they want are a bunch of animal skins… and there are plenty… and we get GUNS!!! Yeah!"… so, it was good…)

1612 – life at the colony is really tough now… but John Rolfe makes a startling discover and produces the first successful tobacco crop. At first, it was thought to be a cure for certain diseases, but then people started smoking it and called the upper class called it a "jovial weed"… a social thing. So, it started to become on demand. Also Powhatan dies, destroying the alliance that the Indians had with the white men…

1619 – By this time, there are only 1650 people left alive, even though over 100,000 people have been pampered in…

John Rolfe marries Pochahontas, the favorite daughter of Powhatan (her name for close friends was Matoaka.) Married in 1614. This once again allied the English and the Indians. She was baptized and converted to Christianity and they had a son named Thomas

1616 – Rolfe wanted to go home for a bit and he took along his wife and son… everyone thought she was cool and treated her like Royalty… The king says, "she’s fine, but tell everyone else not to do this… you’re a common dude and she’s a fine princess… don’t screw up anymore…" So, Rolfe says, "Cool it man… it’s all good…"

OK… so they’re ready to go home and they meet in the departing city of Graveson. It’s here, however, when Pochahontas contacts pneumonia and dies. She’s also buried there. Thomas was left in England to study for 13 years.

1618 – Now that the girl is dead, it’s a whole new ball game. Powhatan’s older brother, Opechancanough takes over and goes to Rolfe and says, "We’re sorry dude… she meant as much to us as she meant to you… we know how you feel… just be assured that nothing’s gonna change…" Rolfe says, "Thanks, dude… you’re the man… do you want a strawberry shortcake?" O-man says, "Nahhh… that’s cool…" O-man’s brothers say, "Dude, did you really mean all that?" and O-Man says, "HELL NO!!!!". He takes the next 3 years to build up and kill them all…

In the mean time, it’s 1619. The Virginia Company is doing well (the London part, at least)… it wants to do more stuff, though…

There should be representatives to resolve issues on the spot, rather than waiting for a response from England. So, the House of Burgesses is formed… (Note: This is the first time that a self-governing colony is put into motion!)

Private ownership of land is allowed – Every freeman gets 100 acres of land. That is the "first division". Then, you also get 100 acres of land on the FRONTIER… that’s the "second division". All you have to do is over here to England… it works to bring in tons of people… all they have to do is show up and pay a small fee…

Importation of Women – not as eternal love slaves, but as WIVES… I mean, there were NO women there, so it must’ve gotten pretty boring… 85 women were imported in. You could pick a wife for the price of 100 lbs of tobacco (the fee for getting them over here…)

Also in 1619 was the introduction of African American Slaves into the colony… this marks the first time that it’s been done… they were taken over as "bond servants"

1622 – O-Man launches his attack (on Good Friday… just coincidence, but it caught them off guard) At this point, O-Man is 80 yrs. old! The English won, though… J He killed of the total population, though… and he was forced to make peace…

1644 – tries to kill them all again, but he fails (now 102 years old!!!)

1623 – the colony is "audited", and it is decided that they have been messing up the book keeping

1624 – Virigina is taken and made a Royal Colony. At this point, the English government ratifies the "Headright system", which says that any freeman can get tons of land just for coming… This places the English through the door, and they are here to stay!


Who is this dude anyway?

The Pilgrims Have Thanksgiving

The Plymouth Settlement – the 1st in New England… founded by Separatists (aka the Pilgrims). They left due to persecution – they were opposed to certain practices of the Church (thought it was too much like Catholicism) and they wanted to be "pure", hence the name the "Puritans".

1607 – Went to Holland and practiced their faith… but their children started growing up Dutch… so they left and wanted to build a real, isolated, Christian community.

1620 – Received a land grant from the Virginia Company. 101 people were put in a boat and shipped over. (Half of them are "saints": People pre-destined and elected by God to be saved). They came over in family groups via the Mayflower, under William Bradford. They get blown off course and land at Cape Cod and found Province Town, Mass. It’s really cold though and a bunch of people starve.

November 20, 1620 – The Mayflower Compact, a document creating a self-governing institution, is created and signed. This is the FIRST government created by the consent of the governed. It elects its own leaders and makes its own laws.

Spring 1620 – A dude named Squanto comes along and says, "You guys suck! Plant my corn this way…" They say, "COOL BEANS!" And so, corn becomes a staple all over the place.

November 1621 – It’s been a year and they want to give thanks. Their population never rose above 7000 people. This was Thanksgiving (DUH!)

1691 – The colony is absorbed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Massachusetts Bay Colony

settled by non-separating congregationalists: they wanted to hold together, not separate… they just wanted to reform by moving away for a while

1621 – King Charles I gives a land grant to the MBC (the mouth of the Plymouth River). Granted to John Winthorp as a "religious refuge": (This is similar to Maryland, which is created for Catholics) This is also a different land grant because the main office was IN THE COLONY, and not in England.

1630 – Winthorp is on the Arbella and takes 6 other ships – They settle and establish Boston. Later in the year, 17 more ships (about 100,000 more people) come. Winthorp becomes governor of Boston. A "General Court" is creates, which elects the governor and his advisors. In order to vote, you had to be a "freeman", meaning:

you had no debts to the company

your land was free and clear (?)

you were a member in good standing with the church (Church and State went hand in hand)

Some dude named Roger Williams didn’t like the way that they were treating the Indians. He also suggested that the church and state should be separated, because the church ruling the state makes the state corrupt.

1636 – Williams was banished for having these opinions… Instead of crying to his mom, he establishes the colony of Rhode Island with the help of the Indians (which all have grown to love… theyrrrrrreeeeeeee GRRRRRRRRRREEEEEEEEAAAAAATTTTT!)

Anne Hutchinson – a woman who held "community meetings" and the like in her home and became a prominent person. People thought that women shouldn’t be doing that job…

(?) Revelations: Antonimian Heresy – all the rules: don’t have to obey them, because God said no. So kick her out in 1638

they bring her to court when she’s pregnant. She refuses to change her mind, so they kick her out for good. She becomes ill and her baby is stillborn (they say, "That’s what she deserves!") So, she settles out of the near Portsmouth. Her husband dies in 1642, so she settles on Long Island.

Connect – I – Cut!

Settled by more Puritan land seekers under Thomas Hooker

3 Congregations are formed and they get together and go

They just want more land and better land!

(?) Laws only reign over the community, so they changed the laws.

Connecticut opens their government to NON-church members (this is new!)

1638 – John Davenport settles New Haven, CN

Start spreading the news… I’m leaving today… I want to be a part of it…

Settled by the Dutch in 1614. Established a "trading post" on the island of Manhattan

1626 – Governor Peter Minuit buys Manhattan from the natives and calls it New Amsterdam

Problems with the government: there is no "self-government" here, and total control is given to the governor… this can get REALLY corrupt…

People who were immigration in from all over the place are saying, "Damn this government sucks…" They aren’t even Dutch, so these immigrants don’t give shit… They are a MIXED population.

1664 – Peter Stuyvesant is governor. The English come to try and take over New Amsterdam, so the English and Dutch go to war. (The Dutch were previously allied with the Spanish.) English come along with the navy, and Pete says, "Help ya’ll!"… and everyone else says, "No way, man… you suck!" So, the English take over and rename it as New York!

The Three Types of Colonies:

Corporate – for stocks… like a corporation… (duhh…!)

Proprietary – started by a specific group or company… One person owns it all, one person controls it all…

Royal – Colonies run by the CROWN! (These are under the same laws as England is: The British Constitution, English Common Law, etc.)


 Maryland – The first Proprietary Colony

George Calvert – an upper middle class kind of person. Had friends like Sir Robery Cecil (who was secretary for the king!)

In 1617, he is knighted as Sir George – so, he was a competent man… not a moron…

1624 – Converted to Catholicism (not good for someone in England!)

1625 – In his 40’s, he became the Baron of Baltimore and a member of the House of Lords (rather than the House of Commons) – He had risen up… this was akward, because you usually inherit the position in the House of Lords… you don’t just "get" it…

He ALSO tried his own colonization effort: Avalon in Newfoundland… unfortunately, it failed miserably.

He wanted to make a refuge for Catholics in England, so he brought it up with the King, saying, "Hey, dude… Gimme some land so I can take these Catholics out of England where we can’t bother you…" King says… Uhhh… ok… During the early 1630’s, he begins to secure everything, trying to get the North Side of the Potomac River (The "other" side of the Chesapeake Bay)

6 years later, he finally secured it all down… it was lots of work…

He was all ready to go… but then he DIED! AHHHHHH!

He was succeeded by his son, Cecilius, named after Sir Robert Cecil. (Some say that Cecilius was a lot better than his dad… he did his homework and knew what was up with the colony)

He took over and made his brother, Leonard Calvert, the governor of the new "Maryland"

They both sat down and made rules for how everything’s gonna work… a big game plan…

1634 – The expedition lands on St. Clements, Chesapeake Bay. Father Andrew White, a Jesuit priest, conducts the first English mass on American soil.

The only "problem" is that most of the people who came over aren’t even Catholic… they’re Protestant! (roughly a 4:1 ratio, P:C) – So there are lots of Protestant colonists, but the colony is owned Catholic… this presents just a minor problem…

St. Mary’s becomes the 1st permanent settlement in Maryland.

Annapolis becomes the center of Protestant stuff in Maryland.

Religious toleration is enforced (just because it’s good politics!)

Good things: No Indians, Good Soil, and Tobacco grows soon!

Everything was smooth from then on out… except for small border disputes… that’s when two dudes, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon came to adjust the "line"… it went north about 4 miles and Maryland lost some land… that is the fabled "Mason-Dixon Line"

Oats in a new jersey!

The Society of Friends, often called the Quakers

started by George Fox

It was during the time of the wars between the Anglicans and the Puritans when Mr. Fox said, "Organized religion sucks! Let’s just go for individual beliefs and no clergy!… I mean, there’s nothing in the Bible that says that we have this stuff…

They were also Equalitarians (they didn’t want war…) so, they treated everyone the same way… from the lowest homeless guy to even royalty… (It was like an insult to the king…) This wasn’t accepted, so they all wanted to move…

MEANWHILE, George Carteret and John Berkley, two Anglicans, were asking Charles II for a proprietary land grant in America for supporting him during the restoration .

Charles II said, "Cool!" Call it New Jersey!

1664 – action set into motion

1665 – Everything was authorized… Carteret and Berkley wrote a "Concession and Agreement" which stated everything that they were about to do and advertised it everywhere:

Representative Assembly

Religious Tolerance (Any faith accepted)

Whoever you want can come along…

Liberal land policy

By 1665-1666, the Quakers had heard about the whole thing and they were coming in by the dozen! It figures the Berkley and Carteret didn’t get along too well, so they divided up into West Jersey and East Jersey

1674 – Berkley sells out to 9 men, who in turn sell out to 14 men…

1680 – Carteret sells out to 21 men

The end result is that there is a huge confusion over who owns what land… as a result, New Jersey didn’t grow rapidly at all…

1702 – the crown takes back Jersey to resolve all conflicts, and so the Governor of New York = the Governor of New Jersey


William Penn Sr. served in the Royal Navy and served Charles I and Charles II (He was a well respected dude!)

1660 – lived in the upper / middle class and sends his son (William Penn JR.) to college

1662 – Penn Jr. goes to Oxford University and becomes involved with the Puritans

1662-1665 - Penn Jr. travels throughout Europe on business with his dad. This is when he starts looking into the Quakers. His dad’s horrified when he hears that his son is interested. Penn Jr. was eventually converted in Ireland by Thomas Loe, a Quaker Evangelist. So, Penn Sr, hated his son.

1670 – Penn Sr. is on his death bed and ask, "You still a Quaker?" His son says, "Yeah…" His dad says, "DAMN!" But he got to inherit all of his stuff anyway… they reconciled their differences, and then he died.

From 1670 to 1680, Penn Jr. was a Quaker Missionary, and he wanted a place where Quakers could be cool and just chill like that… so he asked for a proprietary land grant from the king and pushed for it…

Actually, Penn Sr. was owed money which amounted to about $4 mil… but Penn Jr. said, "Just gimme the land grant, and we’ll call it even!" He said that he wanted to:

Expand the Empire

Expand the Christian Faith

Get the Quakers out of here!

Name went from "New Wales" (That sucks)… to "Sylvannia" (Lots of trees) to "Pennsylvannia" (for your dad… NOT FOR YOU!)

Land granted between the Delaware River and 5 degrees, and between 40 and 43 degrees N (Now that they started realizing that the frontier stretched really far, they decided to start limiting stuff down…)

Proppered (?) at first… (Tolerance)

Penn also wanted to make a "buffer zone" out to the sea to make sure they weren’t blocked from shipping, wars, etc. So the three counties linking Pennsylvannia up to the mouth of the river were collectively called Delaware.

In 1703, Delaware separates itself from Pennsylvannia

Charleston, Charleston… made where???

1663 – by Anthony Ashely Cooper

His plan was to establish three mother counties on the coast of the Carolinas, and expand westward coast to coast with it. They were to be established between 36 degreed N and 31 degrees N. From top to bottom, the counties were Albemarle (renamed New Bern later), Clarendon, and Craven.

Clarendon is soon closed because of "Cape Fear" – lots of rocks and stuff… hard to land

1667 – Charlestown pops up in Craven.

The native tribes, the Yemassee, can take the pressure and are forced to move out.

In 1712, split to N. Carolina and S. Carolina – major exports were Rice & Indigo (for aristocrats that wanted lots of blue dye…) Tobacco and Naval Stores (tar off of trees) became very important because ships could make repairs here. (Their team is called the Tar Heels!)


1732 – James Edward Oglethorpe decides to try and set stuff up… (He will be the only colony founder who will see his colony become its own independent nation!)

Began in 1722, when he joined a reform movement… specifically, "Anti-Debtor’s Prison".

Argued that you got to put them somewhere to rehabilitate them… and that they can’t pay the bill if they’re locked up in jail! (It was a 100% social experiment…)

1732 – the land is granted, and in 1733, the wheels begin to turn.

Started to send social workers into prisons to find the right type of people who could fit in at Georgia.

The main city was Savannah.

21 Trustees ruled wth Oglethorpe.

The charter had limited time: 21 years, and then ownership would revert back to the Crown

Three major laws:

no alcohol (retreated – they were making their own)

no slavery (retreated – started bringing in slaves in 1749)

no private ownership of land (retreated – eventually, they started giving it away!)

Georgia grew to about 7000 people… and it was ok (experimentally…)

How people GOT to the New World!

By the 19th century, America has more or less been formed.

Labor supply:

mostly free workers – was on the land for themselves

voluntary white servitude:

indentured servants – sold his service for X amount of years. It cost about 5-6 pounds to cross over to the New World, and that meant anywhere from 2 to 7 years of service. You sell yourself to the captain and the Captain will handle you until delivery. Indentured servants could be sold for 15 to 20 pounds. (Nice profit!) Some ports wanted to buy "parcels" – as many servants as possible are bought at once. Well-being of the servant was the responsibility of the master. "Freedom dues" when the service period was over: thousands of people came like this. The system worked pretty well. Most of them were male and English. So, they weren’t all that different from their masters.

Redemptioners – mostly Germans… there were few differences between them and the indentured servants. They tried to avoid going into servitude as much as possible by trying to find friends and family who would be willing to buy them as soon as they arrived.


A.E. Smith wrote in Colonists in Bondage that anywhere from 300 thousand to 400 thousand people came this way.

involuntary white servitude:

convicts – in 1718, Parliament passed the Transportation Act, which allowed convicts to serve their sentences as workers in America. Crimes went for anywhere from 7 to 14 years. If you were a Felon (murdered), then your sentence was life. Men were transported via Ships of War or other contracted ships, usually from Bristol England. 50,000 convicts were shipped. They took the name, "His Majesty’s Seven Year Passengers". 85-90% were male (duhhh). Anywhere from mid teens to late teens, then were mostly in for BIG crimes… America becomes a dumping ground for everyone else

Shanghai – people could also get kidnapped and be unwilling sold into servitude (Don’t stay out on the docks at night!) Parliament tries to stop it around 1717, but it really doesn’t do much because you can never really know whether or not the "kidnapped" are really telling the truth.

Meanwhile, America still needed a reliable, stable work force… these spots were filled by the slaves…

Slavery – especially on plantations and farms, they were needed. Slave labor began in 1503, when : "Moors" are sold as slaves by the Spanish. They were first imported in 1881 in Brazil. 1619 – the first 20 of them are sold in America.

In The Midddle Passage, Daniel Mannix speculates that at least 15,000,000 people make it over to America as African slaves. There is a high death rate on ships, so this number could be much higher…

the main currency in the slave trade was rum

the route went from America, to Africa, to the West Indies, etc.

the slaves were packed away in barracoons. They went around to the West Indies first, where they sold the dangerous slaves. And then, they went on to America… most slaves had no idea what was going on.

You either packed them LOOSE or you packed them TIGHT

Slave ships SMELL…

They were bond servants for life: They had almost no hope for freedom: no weapons, no education, can’t testify against whites, no private property, no assembly, and there were big laws / penalties for runaways


It was VERY profitable – you could bring in TONS of rum… Obviously, the slaves didn’t like it, but people then didn’t care. EVERYONE’S humanity is diminished because of slavery. Racism rises, and America becomes a slavery dependent nation. New York and Virginia have the most number of slaves. South Carolina has the largest percentage of slaves.

Slavery now becomes a widely accepted practice!


1688 – In Germantown, PA, people start to protest. The Quakers didn’t want slaves. They rallied to set all slaves free, and then stop all incoming slaves. It never happened, though…

John Woolman – Quaker reformer leading the Anti-Slavery crusade said that, "Slavery is an unacceptable moral evil."

1701 – Samuel Seawall – stands against slavery… END IT NOW!


(America has a high degree of self government…)

12/13 colonies have a bicameral legislation (Pennsylvannia is the 13th one)

The Government was either:

Royal – owned by the crown

Proprietary – owned by own person

Corporate – owned by several people through joint stock

The function of governor was to:


Military – the militia – call all able bodied free men

Judicial – could be the chief justice…

The Lt. Governor is paid little, but is still very powerful. He could veto the Governor.

Under that is the Upper House and the Lower House

UPPER HOUSE: the older, richer folks:

appointed by the governor

small upperhouse: 12-30 people

conservative: didn’t want change

NORTH: the assistants, SOUTH: the council


acts as the legislative body

advises the Lt. Gov and the Gov

judicial body (could serve on the court)

LOWER HOUSE: the more common dudes:

elected by the people

the other legislative body

more liberal

61X2 = 122 members

NORTH: the House of Representatives, SOUTH: the House of Burgesses

NORTH: Divided into townships

SOUTH: Divided into counties

Extra positions: Sheriff, Clerk, and Surveyor



Justice of the People County Courts Colonial Court the Privy Council (in England)

TO VOTE OR HAVE OFFICE: FREEMAN with 50 pounds worth of stuff… (makes sure that you’re stable)


The colonial period lays the foundation for a self-government on common wealth.

There were some tentative steps towards intercolonial government.

The New England Confederation: (The United Colonists of New England)




New Hampshire

The GRAND COUNCIL = 2 from each of the four = 8

Not a real body: just a little round table discussion… then they just suggested answer to their respective governments… not real power… it was more like a "Debating Society". Also did stuff to talk about taxation, the militia, Native American war, diplomacy, runaway servants and intercolonial crime. This whole thing wasn’t really successful, however, since it was a VOLUNTARY effort to all get together.

The Dominion of New England

New England


New York

New Jersey

This was created by the crown…

 The Navigation Acts:

Any cargo carried to & from must be on English ships (keep foreigners out of the system)

Lists only the stuff allowed to be traded in the Empire

Anything/Everything had to go through England

The bonding system: had to post bond (ship + cargo)

Punishment for not obeying laws, etc.


The French had hit Louisiana and were taking it North. England had landed on the coast and were headed to intercept while going east.

1683-1684 – minor skirmishes

Iroquois sides with the English, the Algonquin side with the French

The first formal war, King Williams’ War lasts 8 years: starts in 1689. It really didn’t settle anything, though…

Feb. 1689 – the Schnectady Massacre… The French know that they can’t push the English out totally, but they just hope to scare them all to death so they’ll stop going east. So, they decided to use their Indian Allies as a shield to block them. The town is overwhelmed and obliterated by surprise, and is sent as a sign.

Thomas Quick – father was killed by Indians, so he became an Indian killer and vowed to kill 100.

1703-1713 – Queen Anne’s War (Started in Europe and spread to America)… NY, and NE frontier

1744-1748 – King George’s War – Georgia just established… War also in Georgia on the Spanish Florida front. (This was another inconclusive war!) Wars just get bigger and bigger…

FINALLY, the French and Indian War (the 7 years war): Starts in America and head to Europe front for control of the Ohio. (1754-1760)

1755 – General Braddock’s expedition annihilated trying to take over a French fort on the river.

Eventually, the French are defeated and driven out. War ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris.

This establishes the English fully in America

All the while, there are tons of self-governing people, and American Nationalism is on the rise…

The war debt created by this war gives America a window with which to declare independence.