History Notes by PiNoY!
Test #1: 2/16/98
These notes include all answers for the questions for the readings, as well as all the
terms on the sheet that I found RELEVANT. As much as possible, I have tried to include
anything out of the lecture in the terms section. Standard disclaimers do apply, however.
Questions for Eric Foner, "The New View of Reconstruction"
What does the essay by Eric Foner illustrate about the writing of History?
Foners essay on the writing of History, specifically the History of the
Reconstruction, illustrates that the history written about a particular subject often
become tainted with the biased views of the author. In most cases, it is not 100% clear if
the author was taking into full view the accounts of all that were affected by the
Reconstruction. Foner opens with a discussion of the pre-1960 conception of the
Reconstruction, then ventures into its past and recent reworkings. (p. 2)
What is the traditional interpretation of Reconstruction that dominated historical
writing for so long? Why did it enjoy remarkable staying power?
The traditional interpretation of the Reconstruction, well accepted before the 1960s,
spawned from the work of William Dunning and his students at Columbia University. (This
traditional interpretation is often dubbed the "Dunningite" view, as noted by
the introduction of this essay.) In short, Dunnings view primarily focused on the
wagings and dealings of the whites. Replacement President Andrew Johnson is portrayed as
the hardworking executive whose attempts at reconstruction are foiled by the insidious
plans of the Radical Republicans (also called Vindictives or Jacobins).
According to Dunning, corruption spawned from the attempts of hasty Radicals to fasten
black supremacy to the old Confederacy. Dunning also defined and outlined the roles of carpetbaggers
(Northerners who ran to the south in hopes of filing the vacancies of political offices)
and scalawags (Southern whites who cooperated with the new governments for
alleged personal gain.)
The Dunningite view enjoyed a long reign for several reasons. First of all, it clearly
defined a set of easily identifiable heroes and villains Johnson: GOOD, Radicals:
EVIL. Next, it accorded with the political and social realities of the first half of the
20th century. It just "seemed" right to the people at the time. This
old interpretation ignored the testimony of a crucial piece of the Reconstruction: the
black freedman. (p.3)
Describe the revisionist view of Reconstruction. Note such things as the changing
interpretations of the Radicals, conditions in the South, the role of the freedmen, the
carpetbaggers, the scalawags, the Ku Klux Klan, and the presidential plans of
The revision of the "Dunningite" view of history was inevitable, due to the
fact that it ignored the testimony of the black freedman. His view created the assumption
that blacks were unfit to share in political power.
Presidential Plans of Reconstruction: President Lincoln actually did not in
fact have a set plan for stable reconstruction. He was carefully contemplating it,
however. Johnson was not a hero of the reconstruction period he was a
stubborn, racist politician who lacked the ability to compromise. He continuously isolated
himself from the broad band of public opinion and acted on his own personal biases.
The "Radicals": major ideas from the reconstruction definitely spawned
from the workings of "radicals" like Charles Summner and Thaddeus Stevens.
However, it was not only the radicals who supported these ideas. "Reconstruction
legislation, ranging from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to the Fourteenth and Fifteenth
Amendments, enjoyed broad band support from moderate and conservative Republicans. It was
not simply the work of a narrow radical faction." Thus, historians can no longer
interpret the title "Radical Reconstruction" to simply be the work of the
Conditions in the South: history was reevaluated from the black point of view. The
time period became viewed as a "time of extraordinary political, social, and economic
progress for blacks. The establishment of public school systems, the granting of equal
citizenship to blacks, the effort to restore the devastated Southern economy, the attempt
to construct an interracial political democracy from the ashes of slavery, all these were
commendable achievements, not the elements of Bowers tragic era."
The Role of the Freedmen: Originally, it was viewed that after emancipation, the
blacks were lazy and sat around, waiting for the government to give them benefits. On the
contrary, investigation into the role of freedmen have shown that "Black initiative
established as many schools as did the Northern religious societies and the
Freedmens Bureau." The right to vote wasnt simply thrust upon them: they
had to fight for it and fight they did!
Carpetbaggers: In truth, they were former Union soldiers who sought economic
opportunity in the postwar South, not unscrupulous adventurers as they were believed to
Scalawags: These were not traitors to the white race. Instead, they were "Old
Line" Whig Unionists who had opposed secession in the first place. "Or, they
were poor whites who had long resented the planters domination of Southern life and
who saw in Reconstruction a chance to recast Southern society along more democratic
; as one scalawag newspaper put it, the choice was between salvation at
the hand of the Negro or destruction at the hand of the rebels."
The Ku Klux Klan: in past views, the KKK did very little: they simply intimidated
blacks by dressing up as ghosts and playing on African superstitions. In reality, however,
the KKK often (physically) attacked and killed blacks and the white republicans who
defended their rights. (This was often played down in past views.) (p.3-5)
Post-revolutionist writers have found Radical Reconstruction not to have been very
After investigation into the matter, it seems evident that the "Radical
Reconstruction" wasnt very "radical" at all. In truth, the government
did little to improve the situation of the freedman. "Since land was not distributed
to former slaves, they remained economically dependent upon their owners." Not much
had been done in terms of putting former slaves on the same civil rights level that whites
enjoyed. (p. 6)
Some recent writers doubt whether the Republican party made a genuine commitment to
racial justive in the South. Explain.
Many Northern and Federal politicians, with the exception of very few, like Thaddeus
Stevens, adhered to the assumption that so long as the national government had emancipated
the slaves, it would take very little effort to have them integrated into society. Thus,
the feds never really pushed for anything else. They simply granted black suffrage. Very
little was done, if at all anything, to try and improve the situation of the freedman.
They didnt really push for things to be done
there was no real commitment.
Were African Americans united in Reconstruction Politics?
No. "Conflicts within the black community, no less than divisions among whites,
shaped Reconstruction politics." Studies on this subject took place under Thomas Holt
and Nell Painter, who further discovered that a majority of blacks who took office
("representative colored men", as they were called) failed to provide the
ordinary freeman with political leadership. "Holt found that black officeholders in
South Carolina mostly emerged from the old free mulatto class of Charleston, which shared
many assumptions with prominent whites. Basically bourgeois in their origins and
orientation, he wrote, they failed to act in the interest of black
peasants." (p.7 8)
Explain some of the arguments why the South, and especially its African American
population, suffered from dire poverty and economic retardation in the decades following
the Civil War.
(shaky) After emancipation, little was done to help the blacks economically. Because
the land that they previously worked on STILL belonged to their owners, they really had no
choice but to work for their former "masters". A large amount of bitterness
still stayed between these two parties. There was plenty of corruption. White farmers were
forced to pay the high taxes, while propertyless blacks got away scot-free. The whites
envied advantages given to the blacks and the two were always in conflict. A new system of
labor needed to be developed, but none replaced the current one. (p. 8 - 11)
The author notes that in terms of the sense of possibility with which it opened,
Reconstruction failed, but it was a "splendid failure." Explain.
The Reconstruction opened with a "well-to-do" sense: trying to put blacks on
the same level as whites - politically, socially, and economically. Although is seems that
many of the original objectives of the Reconstruction were never really achieved (putting
them on the same level, letting them survive, offering protection, land, etc.), the
Reconstruction fueled the debates on these issues that opened American to a wide amount of
opportunities and set the foundation for modern America.
Questions for Henry Sturgis, "The Iron Spine"
What were problems that delayed a decision on constructing a transcontinental
railroad in the 1840s and 1850s?
In short, corruption, Indians, politics and politicans, and all the more.
Corruption - Scandals like the Credit & Finance Company and the Credit
Mobilier (see question #3) "overcharged" themselves to put government railroad
subsidies into their own pockets.
Indians - Track layers had to plow through Indian territory and often times ran
into "injun trouble"
Politics - There was fierce competition over as well as against the railroad
systems. "Near-by" Railroads has the ability to transform deserted areas into
populous cities almost overnight. Used for transportation of both people and goods, towns
near railroads were sure to prosper. But there was controversy over WHERE the railroad
should be located: In the North or in the South? Some southern congressmen didn't even
WANT a railroad to begin with. (Remember that whole sectionalism thing we learned last
semester?) A lot of people in the South thought that it would just be a waste of money!
Why was the Civil War an asset for Theodore Judah in getting federal government
support for a transcontinental railroad line?
Theodore Judah, also known as "Crazy Judah" (for the way he romanticized
about a transcontinental railroad line), was scheming things before the war even started.
It was only after the start of the Civil War was Judah able to convince Congress (now made
up of only Northern Congress men who supported the rail line from the very
beginning for trade purposes) to subsidize Judah's corporation, " The Central Pacific
Railroad of California."
What was the purpose of the Credit & Finance Company and the Credit Mobilier?
What was the Credit Mobilier scandal?
The Credit & Finance Company, originally called "the Associates", was
created by the "Big Four" executives of the Central Pacific Railroad Company:
Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, and Collis Huntington. This was a
"dummy" company created and contracted to build the railroad. In effect, Central
Pacific contracted the Credit & Finance Company (themselves), who over charged for the
services, the "Big Four" pocketing the difference between the "real
rate" and the amount given to them by the government. The Credit Mobilier had the
same purpose, except it was created Oakes Ames. Oakes Ames was the brother of the
president of Union Pacific Railroad, AND a US representative from Massachusetts. Union
Pacific hired out the Credit Mobilier to be "inspectors." In the mean time,
Oakes pocketed the difference and used some of the cash to send "contributions"
to his friends in Congress
congressmen who kept the railroad bills on the floor and
which led to more subsidizes
which led to more money
to MO PROBLEMS! (B.I.G lives on inside of everyone! B.I.G RULEZ!!!)
What was the effect of the first transcontinental railroad as seen by the author?
America was becoming the most powerful industrial nation the world had ever seen.
"The Railway is the greatest centralizing force of modern times." (According to
President James Garfield
which is ironic because he was involved with the Credit
Questions for Robert L. Heilbroner, "Epitaph for the Steel Master"
How Does Robert L. Heilbroner explain the growth of Carnegie's steel empire?
What kind of stupid question is this? Anyway, Carnegie earned his
was in business the hard way. Originally from Scotland (hence the references to William
Wallace and Robert the Bruce in the later part of the passage), Andy Carnegie's family
came to America with the same "American Dream" that everyone else has
His family was very poor, and Andy had to work
ever since he was a little kid. He started out as a messenger boy for a small telegraph
company. He did extremely well, becoming one of only THREE people (at the time) who could
telegraph words "straight of the wire"
(telegraph as people spoke).
Eventually, he got into the hands of Thomas A. Scott and T.T. Woodruff, pioneers in the
railroad industry. He grew from there, establishing contacts in the field and the creation
of his Steel Empire. (In time, Carnegie's steel production output would more than double
that of Europe's production output as a whole!)
What was Carnegie's attitude towards wealth?
Carnegie was extremely power hungry, but munificent as well. "We see the unequal
struggle between a man who loved money - loved making it, having it, and spending it - and
a man who, at bottom, was ashamed of himself for his acquisitive desires." It's true
that he made TONS of money: After his death, there was speculation that he had made no
less than five hundred million dollars
but in the end, his estate totaled
$22,881,575 - meaning that he had given away over 90% of his wealth! In a note to himself,
he wrote that at age 33, he had begun to earn $50,000 per year. At that time, he decided
to keep only $50,000 of profits per year, and give away the rest, to retire 2 years later.
Andrew Carnegie worked on, however - 33 MORE years!
What was Carnegie's attitude towards wealth?
"Carnegie was also a ruthless driver of his men. He pitted his associated and
subordinates in competition with one another until a feverish atmosphere pervaded the
How does Heilbroner assess Carnegie?
Another DUMB question!!!!!! Umm
he does it
Anyway, "in general (i.e at the end)", Heilbroner saw Carnegie as a powerful,
rich man. He was philanthropic, though
as he gave away just about all of his money to
education and stuff like that
That why you here of his famous libraries that he
funded, that Carnegie Institutes in Pittsburgh and Washington (aka Carnegie Mellon
University), Carnegie Hall in New York, the Hague Peace Palace, the Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace, and the precedent making Carnegie Corporation of New York (remember
watching Reading Rainbow when you were, like, 7 years old? "This show has been
founded by the Carnegie Corporation
and in part by Kellogs"
That's the same exact Andrew Carnegie!)
Questions for C. Vann Woodward, "Plessy vs. Ferguson: The Birth of Jim Crow"
What is meant by "Jim Crow"?
The Name "Jim Crow" is taken from an "antebellum (pre-war) minstrel
show character" (taken from an outside source
but I have no idea what they are
talking about!!!) In any case, this name was applied to the laws that set out to divide
the south into two separate societies: the whites and the coloreds. These laws kept whites
separate from the allegedly inferior race of colored people. These laws eventually led to
the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson, where the doctrine of "separate, but equal" was
tested. Unfortunately, the doctrine stood, and the courts said that it was ok to
segregate, so long as both services were EQUAL.
Did Jim Crow laws immediately follow the end of Reconstruction?
Not exactly. I mean, it's inherent that there WAS de facto racial discrimination
immediately following the end of reconstruction (marked by the compromise of 1877 and the
presidential election of 1876)
but the book clearly states that the first genuine Jim
Crow law "requiring railroads to carry blacks in separate cars or behind partitions
was adopted by Florida in 1887." Soon, everyone was following suit: Mississippi,
Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee and Kentucky
all in for it.
So, I guess it didn't immediately follow, but there sure was racial tension throughout!
When was the first genuine Jim Crow law requiring railroads to separate passengers
along racial lines passed?
look at Question #2! J
What contributed to the mounting racism in the United States by the end of the 19th
The end of reconstruction. Blacks had pinned all of their hopes in the fact that
since the North had won the Civil War, their rights would eventually be restored no matter
what. However, the "compromise of 1877" ended the Reconstruction period and the
Republicans (much less anyone else) didn't really want to do anything more
that part of the "compromise" provisioned that the North was to withdraw federal
troops from the south. By this, the government could no longer control what went on down
there. Everyone began to abandon the cause, and the fact that the Jim Crow laws were being
passed and not stopped made people think that it was ok to do it. Further segregation then
contributed to the mounting racism. And it was going UNOPPOSED.
On July 10, 1890, the Louisiana Assembly passed a bill entitled "An Act to
promote the comfort of passengers". What was its purpose?
.DUHH!!!! They wanted to SEGREGATE
i.e. separate blacks from
the "comfort" part was really fake. The law required railroads to
provide equal but separate accommodations for the white and black races.
In May 1892, the Louisiana Supreme Court held the 1890 Louisiana law in part
unconstitutional. Why? Why was the decision not satisfactory to opponents of the law?
The court said that it was unconstitutional on the basis that it altered
interstate commerce (because the test case used a passenger who was traveling between
two states). However, the court did not make it unconstitutional as a whole for intrastate
This was a "weak" victory because it didn't do jack shit up
in the higher supreme court (i.e. the FEDERAL supreme court
) So, another case was
Who was Homer Adolph Plessy?
The man that they used for the second test case involving wholly intrastate
commerce. He described himself as "7/8's Caucasian and 1/8 African"
looked entirely black. He sat in the "white car" and was told to move to the
"Jim Crow" car
he refused, and a detective arrested him. (Just in case you
the "test cases" were all actually rigged
didn't like the Jim Crow laws either because it made them spend more money on their
"separate, but equal" cars. The case is drawn, and Plessy vs. Ferguson
appears on the court docket.
Who was Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls? How does the author explain his apparent
change in attitude toward racism?
Nicholls was the original governor who had signed the Jim Crow Act into law when he
was still governor of Louisiana. At heart and at the very beginning, Nicholls denounced
racism and helped blacks gain political power in Louisiana. As time came on, however, he
conceded to racism as the powerful white farmer population began to rise up in rebellion
against the blacks. Although he did "change his mind" on racism during this
time, he openly upheld the legality of the Jim Crow law (as now, in 1892, Chief Justice)
so that the law could begin to be defeated.
How did Albion Tourgee in his brief to the Supreme Court [on the] behalf of Plessy
characterize the "separate but equal" doctrine? Identify: "Justice is
pictured blind, and her daughter, the law, ought to at least be color blind."
The argument that Tourgee upheld in his brief to the Supreme Court was that Plessy
had been deprived of property without due process of law. That "property" was
the "reputation of being white". It was "the most valuable sort of
property, being the master-key that unlocks the golden door to opportunity." He went
further to say that "Probably most white persons, if given the choice
prefer death to life in the U.S. as a colored person." Specifically pertaining to the
"separate but equal doctrine," Tourgee noted that "the object of such a law
is simply to debase and distinguish against the inferior race." (And
be able to identify that quote above
it's good, eh? J )
Be able to discuss the case of Plessy v. Ferguson.
what exactly? Gee
The entire aim of
demolishing the Jim Crow laws was brought up by L.A. Martinet and R.L. Desdunes, newspaper
editors of Louisiana. They hired James C. Walker to create a case to go up against the Jim
Crow laws. Walker associated with Albion Winegar Tourgee of Mayville, NY, who ended up
doing a whole lot of the work. They "rigged" a case and put a partial black man
(who looked black) in a white car and made him refuse to move to the "Jim Crow
Car". He was arrested, and Tourgee (and Plessy) sued the court (John H. Ferguson,
Judge of Section A of the Criminal District Court for the Parish of New Orleans). The
constitutionality of the Jim Crow laws were upheld, and the case was brought to the US
Supreme Court with the help of Chief Justice Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls. Tourgeee
threw a slew of arguments that did not impress the court. Despite the arguments above, the
Supreme Court basically said that if blacks really DO think of themselves as inferior,
then there's nothing that the courts can do about it! The doctrine of "separate, but
equal" was upheld.
The majority opinion in the Plessy case said that validity of segregation laws
depended on their reasonableness. How was this to be measured?
Verbatim, "And in determining reasonableness, the legislature "is at
liberty to act with reference to the established usages, customs, and traditions of the
people, and with a view to the promotion of their comfort, and the preservation of the
public peace and good order."" So, it was basically up to no one! It was so
vague that they could to whatever they wanted
Who was John Marshall Harlan? Note his argument in Plessy v. Ferguson.
He was a southern gentleman, a slaveholder, and a conservative at heart. He was the
"lone dissenter" in the Plessy v. Ferguson case, with arguments echoing those of
Tourgee: "Our constitution is color blind
The law regards man as man." He
was totally against the Jim Crow laws.
How long did Plessy v. Ferguson remain the law of the land?
For 58 years lacking one day, from May 18, 1896 to May 17, 1954, when the court
overruled "Separate, but equal" with the case Brown et al. v. Board of
Education of Topeka, et al. (by Justice John Marshall, ironically enough
Thaddeus Stevens - "Radical" Republican leader who worked for the
rights of blacks long before any conceivable political advantage
They really worked
for black rights because they wanted to
not because they would "look
good." Served in the House from 1859 until his death in 1868. He hated the
"replacement president" Andrew Johnson, calling him a "rank demagogue"
and a "damned scoundrel." Thaddeus Stevens, on behalf of the Republican
Radicals, led the attack on Johnson after the president violated the Tenure of Office Act
in February 1868. (Johnson ended up not being convicted, however, as the arguments were
more political in character, rather than judicial.) Thaddeus Stevens was a major leader of
the Radicals. He was not lovable, and was intensely partisan. ("Republicans all the
way! - Hey
it's the REPUBLICANS that saved the Union after all!!!") Great
a good guy, but no great tolerance. Opposed slavery and class
distinctions. He was a member of the "Whig Party" in the beginning, and played
an important part in the transformation to the Republican Party.
Ten Percent Plan - Plan drawn up by President Lincoln by the end of 1863. He
believed that the war was far enough along that he could start adding people back into the
Union, his "Plan of Amnesty & Reconstruction." Except for the special
exceptions of anyone in high ranking under the Confederacy, or people who mistreated
prisoners, etc. (who would require a separate SPECIAL pardon), any one else could take an
oath back into the union. And, once 1/10 (or ten percent
DUH!) of the 1860
electorate had taken this oath, then Reconstruction could formally begin. (Note that there
was nothing mentioned about granting black suffrage (i.e. granting rights to blacks) Just
reworking the constitutions to exclude slavery & secession. After all, Lincoln wanted
a "quick" reconstruction, so he tried to play away from the issue of Civil
Wade-Davis Bill - The "Congressional Plan" passed the following summer
(1864) in response to the President's 10% Plan. It was like 10%, except that it require
the MAJORITY to take the oath
In addition, Political Rights would be withheld unless
you took the "Iron Clad Oath" in which you SWORE that you never voluntarily
raised arms against the U.S. or given aid to the rebels (just about no one could take that
oath!!!) In addition, the new state constitutions would have to repudiate Confederate
debts. Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill (after passing through Congress), and matters stood
until Lincoln was assassinated.
Thirteenth Amendment - Section 1. - Neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their
Jurisdiction. Section 2 - Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation. Basically made Slavery illegal in the U.S. As a consequence, however,
Southern representation was increased, as the 13th Amendment made the 3/5ths
compromise null and void. So, Republicans were scared that the Southerners might vote in
congressmen and allow Democrats to take office
but oh well
Fourteenth Amendment - A breakthrough in "rights for former slaves"
around the world. It first gave a broad definition of the word "citizen" which
included all former slaves. It then immediately struck down the "Black Codes" by
sating that "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
privileges or immunities of citizens of the United State; nor shall any State deprive any
person of live, liberty, or property without due process of law." If a
state denied the vote to any class of its male adult citizens, its representation was to
be reduced proportionately. Also, federal official (who ranked and helped in the
Confederacy) would be barred from holding office unless they were SPECIFICALLY pardoned by
a 2/3rds vote by Congress. The Confederate Debt was repudiated. (Note that this
amendment DID NOT SPECIFICALLY OUTLAW SEGREGATION or prevent a state from disfranchising
blacks. (They could not work this in now, as the Southern states would NEVER have it, and
it would have been impossible to get the amendment passed.)
Fifteenth Amendment - This SPECIFICALLY forbade the states to deny the vote to
anyone "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." (Once
again, nothing was said about denial of the vote on the basis of sex, which caused
feminists to be angry as hell
even more than the 14th amendment
) Black voters now registered like crazy. (This amendment was passed primarily on
behalf of the republicans, who found out that Grant won the election thanks to the
So, this was an effort to try and get more blacks in to vote of Republicans.)
Black Codes - Slavery was more than just a labor system in the south: It was the
basis of their society as well. These "codes" were meant to regulate this
relationship between whites and blacks, and although they varied from state to state,
included such things as: no interracial marriages, no apprenticeships for blacks, can't be
in court or be a witness (Ex: in Mississippi, you can arrest a black if he fails to
complete his work contract. Was this just another method of keeping slavery alive?) They
kept the blacks "as near to a state of bondage (NOT WHAT YOU'RE THINKING!!!) as
possible." Most permitted blacks to do certain things, but: blacks could not bear
arms, be employed in occupations other than farming and domestic service, or leave their
jobs without forfeiting back pay. These laws were basically ways to "get around"
the 13th amendment. As a result, Congress quickly rejected Johnsonian
Freedman's Bureau - Johnson's attitude towards "influencing"
southerners to "fight" against black suffrage fueled the fire of the Republicans
who passed a bill to expand and extend the Freedman's Bureau, an organization established
in March 1865 to care for refugees. It was a branch of the War Department that already had
special powers in the south, and Congress wanted to expand its power. Johnson vetoed the
bill, however, arguing that it was an unconstitutional extension of the military during
peacetime. (It created schools and food places, and stuff like that for black people. Many
whites, especially the poor, thought that it was unfair!)
Civil Rights Act of 1866 - As a result of the above veto, Congress passed this
act. Not only did it specifically state that black were citizens of the US, but it
"denied the states the power to restrict their rights to testify in court, to make
contracts for their labor, and to gold property. In other words, it put "teeth"
in the 13th amendment. Once again, the president vetoed, which drove the
moderates into the hands of the radicals. On April 9, 1866, Congress passed the Civil
Rights Act of 1866 by a 2/3rds majority, the first time that a major piece of
legislation passed a veto in American History. This is important because IT MARKS THE TURN
OF POWER FROM THE PRESIDENT TO THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH!!!
Congressional Elections of 1866 - hmm
. What the
? I dunno what he was
talking about, but I wrote down the following:
Orders to the army MUST be passed first through the Army's General (even though it is
written that the PRESIDENT is the Army's real General in Chief!)
The Tenure of Office Act of 1867: Any person appointed by the president w/ consent of
the senate can NOT be removed unless the senate also gives consent. (This helped to cancel
some presidential power.)
General Reorganization Act: Undid everything that Lincoln and Johnson did, including
the dividing of the old Confederacy into 5 military districts. It also required that the
state constitutions be REWRITTEN to include BLACK SUFFRAGE.
This and the 14th amendment had to be ratified before reconstruction in that
state could pursue.
The military would be actively used to help register votes (applied specifically to the
south, where many whites shunned black registries
military would now take an active
role to make sure that they did get through
All of these acts were created to overcome white reconstruction resistance
è Johnson vowed to make the choice between the 14th
amendment and his own policy the main issue of the 1866 congressional elections. He
failed, however. White women thought that the ratification of the 14th
amendment put black men in front of white women. The Republicans won more than 2/3rds
in BOTH houses, with control of ALL northern state governments. Now the radicals were
strong, and I guess all of the above was passed as a result of their election
First Reconstruction Act - Passed on March 2, 1867. Divided all southern states
that had NOT ratified the 14th amendment into five military districts, each
controlled by a major general. In order to rid themselves of military rule, the states had
to adopt new state constitutions guaranteeing blacks the right to vote and disfranchising
broad classes of ex-confederates. If the new constitutions checked to be ok, and ALSO
ratified the 14th amendment, then the state's representatives would be
readmitted into congress, and hence military rule would end. Johnson's veto was easily
overridden. The only problem is that the act was so vague that people didn't know how the
fuck to work it! The act didn't spell out exactly HOW each state was to go about rewriting
their constitutions. In fact, some southerner states said, "Hey! We like the old way
We'll just sit here as a dumb "military district" as long was we
don't have to make blacks actual citizens!!!"
Tenure of Office Act (of 1867) - was violated by Johnson, and by which, he was
put to trial (by his loving republicans
J ), but not
convicted. (In February 1868, Johnson violated the act by dismissing Secretary of War
Edwin M. Stanton, a part of his cabinet that was helping out the Republicans.) The act
said that "Any person appointed by the president w/ consent of the senate can not
be removed unless the senate also gives consent." (This lowered presidential
power.) Unfortunately, the act was a whim, and Johnson's lawyers said that it was his
"test" to prove the act unconstitutional. (Besides, Stanton had been appointed
by President LINCOLN during his first term
and NOT by Johnson!)
Scalawags - one of the "real (types of) rulers" of "black
Republican" governments. Scalawags were southerners who had accepted the imposition
of the northerners' will upon the south, and was ready to cooperate with republicans
because they accepted the results of the war and maybe even wanted to advance their own
interests. (In reality, however, they were "Old Line" Whig Unionists who had
opposed secession in the first place, or poor whites who had long resented the planters'
domination of Southern life.)
Carpetbaggers - the other type of person
northerners who went to the South
as idealists to help the freed slaves, as employees of the federal government, or more
commonly as settlers hoping to improve themselves. Their motives and reasons for coming
down were varied. (In reality, they were usually former Union soldiers seeking economic
opportunity in the South.)
"Forty Acres and a Mule" - the idea that TRUE independence
could only be attained by going out and earning a living for yourself: a small plot of
land of your own ("40 acres and a mule") would complete their independence from
Sharecropping - Under the sharecropping system, planters divided up their
large plantations into small units on which he put a single black family. The crops were
usually split 50/50 between the planter and the plantees (the planter provided housing,
tools, animals, seed, and other supplies
all the family had to do was supply the
labor). This gave families specific control over what they wanted to do. This method began
to fail, however, as there was little capital available to finance the system.
Crop-lien system - Instead, the crop-lien system was developed,
putting an emphasis on stuff that they could sell really quickly: weed, sugar, tobacco,
and especially cotton. This really sucked though, because then everyone tried to grow
these (especially the weed!) and it quickly depleted the soil
so it REALLY killed
everyone! As a result, new "crossroads stores" developed and a small new market
class came about, but the got killed by the system too as they had to borrow money just
like everyone else did
Union League of America - a patriotic club founded during the war used by
Southern white Republicans to control the black vote. They "impressed" the
blacks with tons of weird mumbo jumbo saying, "Better vote for this or else we're all
gonna suffer!" So, they did.
Ku Klux Klan - At first, it was only a small society to try and keep black
people from voting. Then, they started resorting to intimidation, and finally to force,
often killing and executing " 'dem niggers"
Congress struck at them with
three "Force Acts" and finally broke up the Klan enough to disorganize them.
They still played a large role in making it "respectable" to intimidate black
voters. Soon, instead of hiding in the shadows, people began to openly oppress the blacks.
Election of 1876 - the whole story (this sucks
): During the early 1870's,
there were lots of bad economic ties. Scandalous governments a-plenty. The Republicans
were scared that they might lose the election. They picked Ohio governor Rutherford B.
Hayes (OVER James G. Blaine, who they DIDN'T pick because he was involved with railroad
scandals) to run. (Also because Hayes promised to run for only one term.) The Democrats
picked Governor Samuel J. Tilden of NY, a wealthy lawyer who had cracked up the
"Tweed Ring" (some gang) in NYC. Towards the end, Tilden was capturing the
popular vote and the Republicans got really scared. They then saw that that they had just
enough votes to put in Hayes as president, so they put some "henchmen" into
Florida to "invalidate" the Democratic vote (don't ask me how!!! This book
So, the votes came back and supposedly Hayes won. The President of the
Senate is supposed to open up the votes in front of the Senate and the House to do the
counting (which was supposedly marginal), but because the House was full of Democrats and
the Senate full of Republicans, neither would allow the other to do the job. So, close to
inauguration day, a special committee made of 5 representatives, 5 senators, and 5 supreme
court judges (or 7 repubs, 7 demos, and a non-partisan) was to decide. However, the
non-partisan judge, David Davis, got elected senator! So, the spot went to Associate
Justice Joseph P. Bradley of New Jersey, a Republican. So, the republicans got the votes
and Hayes won.
Compromise of 1877 - Even though Democrats were bitter about Hayes winning the
election, they thought they could at least weasel their way into a little
"compromise". There were still troops in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina
that the South didn't want there
plus, the south needed CASH because they wanted to
do tons of internal improvements, annex Texas, and put in railroads. So, in this
"Give & Take Government", the Republicans said that they would support the
annexation of Texas, the creation of internal improvements in the south, and the removal
of troops in the South (left over from the war!!!) in exchange for putting a Republican in
as Speaker of the House. This "informal compromise" was never written out, but
it held up long enough to put in Hayes as President. But, after that, it fell
the democrats didn't support a Republican Speaker of the House, the
Republicans didn't support a Texas Railroad
and blah blah blah
however appoint a republican to his cabinet. THIS COMPROMISE ENDS THE PERIOD OF
Civil Rights Cases (1883) - Occurred during the time that people
began to throw away the 15th amendment. Poll taxes and literacy tests kept
blacks from voting. Number decreased drastically from 130,000 black votes in 1896 to 5,000
black votes in 1900. The Civil Rights Cases of 1883 overthrew the Civil Rights Act of
1875, declaring it unconstitutional. So, blacks had nowhere to go: no recourse under the
law. Everything was torn away from them
that REALLY sucked!!!
Civil Rights Act of 1875 - what kind of order is this?!?! This guy sucks!!!! And
you know what? The ONLY place that the book mentions the Civil Rights Act is when it says
that the Civil Rights Cases of 1883 overturned them
AHHH!!!! He didn't even talk
about this in class!!!!
Plessy v. Ferguson - this was covered in Our Nation's Heritage, so study
it CAREFULLY!!! In Plessy v. Ferguson, they tested out the idea of "separate v.
equal". The court ruled that even in places of public accommodation, segregation was
legal as long as both facilities were EQUAL. "If one race be inferior to the other
socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane."
REMEMBER this name, however: John Marshall Harlan. He was the "lone dissenter"
that we talked about in class that said that "our constitution is color blind
and doing any of this really sucks! Just like History! History really bites!"
it kept "Separate but Equal" in effect until the early 1900's
when it was overturned by Brown v. Topeka School Board of Education
other than Supreme Court Justice JOHN MARSHALL.
Booker T. Washington & The Atlanta Compromise - deemed as one of the
most extraordinary men of the time. Washington was an African American who earned an
education while working as a janitor. His main thing was the Atlanta Compromise
which really wasnt a compromise at all! He was giving a speech in front of a mixed
audience when he said that rather than fighting against social injustices, blacks should
rise up and be educated and then learn to work. It's only then that whites will be able to
see each other as equal, because as is, blacks were caught in an unfortunate circle:
whites denied blacks basic education, and the "ignorance" that while people saw
as a result of their lack of education was basis for their refusal of even more education!
Well, Washington chose "accommodation" of social injustices over confrontation.
A lot of blacks took it the wrong way, however. This speech was in no way saying that
blacks should compromise their pursual of civil rights for economic gains. It was merely a
subtle form of Black Nationalism, and he was telling people not to just TAKE the insults
and racial slurs
but to IGNORE them.
The rest of this test's relevant terms can be found in the list of answers for the
readings. This includes: Credit Mobilier, Central Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific
Railroad, and Promontory (, Utah). This ALSO includes Andrew Carnegie.